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Hi

1.

And one striking feature of the hunter-gatherer peoples encountered by

early European explorers and anthropologists – and of contemporary huntergatherers

who manage to live something close to a traditional way of life – was the

low level of warfare amongst them.

--- Does it mean that that feature relates also to contemporary huntergatherers?

2.

A small number of tribes appear to have been fairly war-like even before European contact.

--- Does it mean that before that had any contact with Europeans a very small number of tribes were characterized by violence?

3.

The !Kung were once extremely peaceful, but now – as a result of

cultural disruption – they have a higher murder rate than mostWestern countries.

--- Does it mean that now they kill each other more often? But does it say that they kill people from their groups or other groups?

4.

People who believe that “war is as old as humanity” often point to examples like

these to show that war is natural, ignoring the fact that, in R. Brian Ferguson’s

words, “all around the world, what has been called primitive or indigenous warfare

was generally transformed, frequently intensified, and sometimes precipitated by

Western contact.”21 However, even nowadays it’s still the case that, in Lenski‘s

words, “the incidence of warfare [in hunting and gathering groups] is strikingly

low. Certainly in those which have survived in the modern era, warfare is

uncommon and violence between members of the same group is infrequent.”

--- "primitive or indigenous warfare" - does it mean a war between primitive and indigenous people????

--- what does "it's still the case" mean here??? Maybe it means "an important argument"?

Thanks

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Newguest1.
And one striking feature of the hunter-gatherer peoples encountered by

early European explorers and anthropologists – and of contemporary huntergatherers

who manage to live something close to a traditional way of life – was the

low level of warfare amongst them.

--- Does it mean that that feature relates also to contemporary huntergatherers? Yes

2.

A small number of tribes appear to have been fairly war-like even before European contact.

--- Does it mean that before that had any contact with Europeans a very small number of tribes were characterized by violence? It seems a bit ambiguous. Does it mean the Europeans weren't responsible for their warlike ways, or simply that there was no one there to observe their behavior?
I don't think you should add "very."
A society can be violent without being warlike. It depends on where the agression is directed.

3.

The !Kung were once extremely peaceful, but now – as a result of

cultural disruption – they have a higher murder rate than mostWestern countries.

--- Does it mean that now they kill each other more often? But does it say that they kill people from their groups or other groups? The expression "murder rate" typically refers to occurrences within the sample group.

4.

People who believe that “war is as old as humanity” often point to examples like

these to show that war is natural, ignoring the fact that, in R. Brian Ferguson’s

words, “all around the world, what has been called primitive or indigenous warfare

was generally transformed, frequently intensified, and sometimes precipitated by

Western contact.”21 However, even nowadays it’s still the case that, in Lenski‘s

words, “the incidence of warfare [in hunting and gathering groups] is strikingly

low. Certainly in those which have survived in the modern era, warfare is

uncommon and violence between members of the same group is infrequent.”

--- "primitive or indigenous warfare" - does it mean a war between primitive and indigenous people?? Yes

--- what does "it's still the case" mean here??? Maybe it means "an important argument"? The presence of "however" gives it two meanings: "in spite of the previous argument," and "the principle still holds true."

Comments  
Edit on number 3:
The bold section doesn not mean they have a higher murder rate than before. The statement is "higher - - - than most Western countries." However, you may deduce that it's higher than before, since they "were once extremely peaceful."