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Hi, I am an English teacher from China, teaching New Concept English Book Two (Practice and Progress). I've met some difficulty in several multiple-choice questions in this book.

1. The woman stood at the window. She stood ___ it.

A. in front B.in front of C. front D. ahead of

The key is B. It is obvious that B is correct, but is D OK here?

2. So far ___ of them has been struck down by sudden death.

A. no one B. nobody C. not any D. none

The key is D. And it is also very obvious that D is correct. But can we choose C here? "Not any of" and "none of" are considered equivalents in many grammar books.

3. The Hubble is ___ the earth's atmosphere.

A. below B.over C.within D. outside

The key is D. There is such a sentence in the text: ... the Hubble is above the earth's atmosphere...

I am not sure whether D or B is the correct answer. In fact, I prefer B to D.

4. The tunnel would be well ventilated. It would have good ___.

A. air B. airing C. ventilation D. circulation

The key is C. And I would choose C. But can B be a possible alternative here?

Can anyone anwer my questions. Thanks in advance.
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Hi Jingtian,

I'll try.

1. The woman stood at the window. She stood ___ it.

A. in front B.in front of C. front D. ahead of

The key is B. It is obvious that B is correct, but is D OK here?

No. 'ahead of' has the sense of 'movement' or at least 'possible movement'.

She finished the race ahead of her opponent.

She stood ahead of me in the line.

2. So far ___ of them has been struck down by sudden death.

A. no one B. nobody C. not any D. none

The key is D. And it is also very obvious that D is correct. But can we choose C here? "Not any of" and "none of" are considered equivalents in many grammar books.

Using 'not any of' here would sound odd to me. It's hard for me to think of a good context where you'd use that. Probably, somewhere you wanted to give extra emphasis to what you are saying.

A is also a possibility, but would be rare.

3. The Hubble is ___ the earth's atmosphere.

A. below B.over C.within D. outside

The key is D. There is such a sentence in the text: ... the Hubble is above the earth's atmosphere...

I am not sure whether D or B is the correct answer. In fact, I prefer B to D.

I wouldn't say 'over' is grammatically wrong, but it sounds very unnatural. We'd commonly say 'above' rather than 'over' here.

4. The tunnel would be well ventilated. It would have good ___.

A. air B. airing C. ventilation D. circulation

The key is C. And I would choose C. But can B be a possible alternative here?

'C' is correct, but bad style because of the repetition. D would be my choice. We often speak of 'air circulation'.

Best wishes, Clive
Welcome to to the forums, Jingtian. we hope to see more of your posts.

You have, indeed, shown how tricky some of these questions can be. I anticipate a variety of responses to this post.

For me,

No.1 -there is no option to B. 'Ahead of' suggests a forward direction.

No.2 -'Not any' may go better with 'have' than with 'has'. (Not sure.)

No.3 -I like 'above' the best, but it's not one of the choices. So, 'outside' is better than 'over', possibly because the connotation of 'over' is wrong for the nature of the telescope, the purpose of which is to look outward. 'Over' implies to me a relation to the earth's atmosphere, rather than a relation to outer space.

No.4 -This is tricky too. You certainly can't go wrong with C. I'd think D might be chosen, too, if only because these two terms are generally very closely associated. A is out of the question because what might be ventilating through the tunnel is radon. Also, not B, for its reference to air, as opposed to, again, radon.
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Thank you, Clive and davkett. Well, after I had submitted the post yesterday, I thought carefully and corrected my mistake in No. 3.

As to No. 1, I want to show you an example sentence from Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary:

Directly ahead of us is the royal palace.

Before I looked "ahead of" in the dictionary, I had believed that "ahead of" suggested a forward movement or tendency. But I got confused and still is. Maybe it is a very rare usage here in the above sentence.
Directly ahead of us is the royal palace.

If there is no extended context around this statement, the assumption would be that the speaker and those being spoken to are 'headed' in the direction of the palace, as in the case of a tour guide on a bus making an announcement to visitors.

Thus, the expression does not sound rare at all.

If, instead, the group were standing near the gates of the palace, he might have said, "In front of us in the royal palace. To our left are the royal gardens. To the right, in the distance, you can see the slums of the city."
Hi, I am living in the U.S. for 10 years. I am trying to answer your questions by my daily experience.

1. Answer D (ahead of) is incorrect. First, nobody uses that way; second, "ahead of the window" means the other side of the window. In this case, it would be outside.

2. Answer C seems correct by grammar; however, similar to "everyone" & "each" - "none of them" is emphasizing the whole group, well "not any of them" would emphasize one single person of the group. I have never heard anyone uses "not any of them". So, I think it is an idiom or common sense that we say "none of us" or "none of them"...

3.Answer B is incorrect. Because atmosphere is a layer, so above this layer, it will be outside the layer. "Over", on the otherhand, gives a range, but not a specific point or area. So, "over the atmosphere" can be anywhere between outside the top of the atmosphere and the universe. So, "over" is not the answer here.

4. I have not heard anyone use "air" ("airing") to substitute the word "ventilate" ("ventilation").

I hope my answers help. Thank you.
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teacher this exercise is too hard for me and also i will be entering examination tommorow abour this book
so belease if you have aright idea write to me and answer to me quackly

1. No

2. good question! The blank needs a NOUN and "not any" is not a noun. None is a noun.

3. Grammatically, above is OK. when it is above it is outside.

4. No Airing is: It is not ventilation.

http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/airing

Answer provided by Yu, Lan, former Associate Professor of English of the Beijing No. 2 Foreign Languages Institute.
I don't know how anyone can seriously use New Concept as a basis for teaching English. To my mind it has two possible uses:

(i) to prop up a wobbly table;

(ii) fuel for a bonfire.

I also don't know what your qualifications are for teaching English. This book is after all aimed at lower intermediate students, and yet you are struggling with it.

Q1. Where can one stand relative to a window? Either 'in front of' or 'behind'. Perhaps 'before' too. A is an adverb. C is an adjective. D is also a phrasal preposition, but inapplicable. So it's B.

Q2 A is just about feasible, grammatically speaking, but sounds more emphatic. More usual to say 'not one'. B is a noun and doesn't work here. C could work. D is best. None always takes the singular form of a verb.

Q3 Consider the atmosphere as a sphere (hence its name). Hold a tennis ball in your hand. Point at a spot below it. Is you finger over the ball? Is it outside the ball?

Q4 To my mind, none of these is a correct answer. Maybe the 'would' throws me. B airing is what you do to your laundry after you've washed, dried, ironed it. A+D would be a good answer.
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