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hi,

hi everyone, i am confused about the gerunds verb of paragraphs two and three. why there are gerund verbs after commas? I know it can be a short form (substitue for clause), but what happens in the paragraph 2 and 3?

1). His mother, wanting to surprising him, bought a bicycle. (his mother, who wanted to surprise him, bought a bicycle.

2). That changed with the arrival of wholesale funding, including securitisation, and this reached £650bn in lending by 2007. (also the comma followed by funding, is it a bracketing comma? if it is the case why there is an 'and' after the second comma?

3). On Sunday Israel dropped new leaflets into Gaza and left phone messages warning Gazans to stay away from areas used by Hamas, saying its operation would soon enter "phase three", the Associated Press reported.

.
thank you very much

edward
Comments  
That changed with the arrival of wholesale funding, including securitisation, and this reached £650bn in lending by 2007.
funding is only marginally a gerund. I would consider it an ordinary noun in this sentence.
including is not a gerund. It's marginally a present participle, used really more as a preposition here.

The phrase including securitisation is set off by commas because it is parenthetical. The sentence contains two clauses separated by and.

That changed with the arrival of wholesale funding
and
this reached £650bn in lending by 2007.

CJ
edwardfungOn Sunday Israel dropped new leaflets into Gaza and left phone messages warning Gazans to stay away from areas used by Hamas, saying its operation would soon enter "phase three", the Associated Press reported.
Saying is not a gerund, but a (present) participle. Participial clauses (or phrases) are normally set off by commas.

CJ
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Do events in participial clauses always happen before the other events in a sentence? I think 'saying its operation' happened before 'dropped new leaflets'.

How about this? Is 'before' the only exception that participial clauses happen later?
Before entering the mosque you must take off your shoes.
heloOODo events in participial clauses always happen before the other events in a sentence?
No, they happen neither before nor after in the general case. They have no tense, so the meaning of the sentence as a whole is your guide to when they happen.

CJ
Hello Edward,
CJ has given a very clear explanation to your question already. I'd just like to add a couple of comments regarding gerund and participle which are essentially the same word but labeled differently according the the context in which they are used..

While trying to get home in a hurry, John got involved in a car accident last night. "Trying" functions as a participle in this sentence. We can also express the sentence this way "John got involved in a car accident last night,while trying to get home in a hurry". The "blue part is already a complete sentnence by itself. The "pink" part is a particple clause (also called adverbial clause by some) describing how it happened.

Driving fast in the rain was the main cause for John's accident. The green part is a gerund.

Hope this help a little...!
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CalifJim
That changed with the arrival of wholesale funding, including securitisation, and this reached £650bn in lending by 2007.
funding is only marginally a gerund. I would consider it an ordinary noun in this sentence.

Finnish grammar of English agrees with Jim here. Funding is a noun, not a gerund. Gerunds can't have determiners and attributes before them. It is incorrect to say:

Correct speaking English is easy. The correct speaking of English is easy is correct.

CB
Thank you very much for your reply. your answers do help me to understand alot more about the gerund.

Mr Brown said: "We cannot always prevent people losing their jobs but we can help people finding their next jobs."

however, I have an other question about gerund which is underlined with yellow color. Also I have come across that some gerund came after the adjective without a preposition. such as I am + adjective + a gerund without having a prepostion in front.

Thanks again

edward
edwardfunghHowever, I have an other question about gerunds which is highlighted in yellow. underlined with yellow color.
What is your question? (finding is a participle, not a gerund -- people who are finding ..., people who are trying to find ...)
edwardfungsuch as I am + adjective + a gerund without having a prepostion in front
Can you give us an example if you'd like to discuss this further?

CJ
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