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Consider the follwoing sentences :

Five fledging sea eagles left their nests in western Scotland this summer, bringing to 34 the number of wild birds successfully raised since transplants from Norway began in 1975.

"On Thursday August 31st the UN’s Security Council passed a resolution authorising 17,300 peacekeepers and a few thousand civilian police to be deployed in Darfur"

Are these underlined words participles ? if yes, what are these modifying ?

Are these gerunds ? if yes, what function these are performing (example : adverbial clause, object, object complements etc) ?

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Comments  (Page 3) 
Maple, the "now" is optional in that expression. Or if you're a teenager, you can just nod and say "Totally!" Emotion: smile
Thank you very much![<:o)]
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Maple
Now I think I can feel free to use the expression “now you can say that again" when I agree with the speaker.

Thanks for your clarification.Emotion: smile

The expression is You can say that again. You stress slightly that in speach. You can say 'that again

You can add now, but you can add anything else as well: man, well, yes. (But you do not start a sentence with And for example.) Now is not more frequent in any sense. Exclamation mark is usual as well.

  • Now, you can say that again!

  • Yes, you can say that again!

  • You can say that again, man!

  • Well, you can say that again!
It is not rare to start the sentence with it

  • You can say that again: it is a perfect plan!

  • You can say that again: we deserve to win!
or when you advertise

  • You can say that again: $20 per month!
you can start a whole part with it

You can say that again. It was a wonderful morning and we decided to go to a holiday. I can't remember having a better holiday in my life.

The only what I do not know about is its usage in the middle or at the end of the sentence or as a separate sentence.

  • You said so good a solution that you can say that again because we might win a Nobel prize if we succeed.

  • You can say that again that she is ugly, but I knew it long ago.
I strongly doubt this usage because I did not find any.

You can say that again is a positive expression it means I totally agree and/or I know it already. It is a spoken phrase. In writing it can show enthusiasm or a well-known god or bad fact.

You can say that again is a pretty fixed phrase, you could occasionally change can to may, might, could but it is not recommendable, because, for example, you may say that again is used when you ask someone to repeat again what he just said. The same danger exists if you change that to it, you can say it again, usually means simply you can repeat what you say. again is never changed to anything else (one more time, for example).
AperisicPersonally, terminology of grammar are just labels. The important thing that counts is the ability to write and express.

In order to achieve that you have to start with the precise grammar rules and slowly overcome their stringency, once you clearly understand why the rules are given the way their are.

Grammar is a mother skirt, always safe, always loved and always supportive. But, it does not bring the world at your feet.

My textbook says: Now you can say that again. (colloq) = You are quite right. I agree with you completely.

That is how it is understood.

Hi Asperisic,

I didn’t mean to mitigate the importance of grammar terms. What I tried to say was when learners are so hung up on terminology that they get themselves tangled up and confused as I have seen in many cases. To be honest, I feel that unless one is planning to be an English teacher or has a passion for English, I really don’t think the average American or English speaking person would be able to distinguish the difference between a “phrase” and “clause”, or “past perfect” and “present perfect”. Having said that, I completely agree with everything you said.
Goodman Hi Asperisic,

I didn’t mean to mitigate the importance of grammar terms. What I tried to say was when learners are so hung up on terminology that they get themselves tangled up and confused as I have seen in many cases.

Neither I understood that way: I was just continuing the path you paved.

Sometimes I think it is such a shame that people learn a foreign language through, believe it or not, that is so, a different grammar than natives. I definitely think that those who want to learn a foreign langue should, by all means, try to find the original (native) books from elementary, secondary… school and pass that path as every other native did, even if faster.

The quick courses or foreign language lessons in school are so frequently useless, though usually the only option, (they do offer some base, but I can't believe how bad my French is after 12 years of learning) that, if I turn back for a moment, I speak and use quite better (not only in my opinion) languages that I did not learn at school and that I spent less timelearning. That is quite unbelievable, but that is so.Emotion: rolleyes

[In order to answer the question in the forum, any forum, it is sometimes the most difficult to decide what phrases you are about to use. Should you be bookish, scholar, paraphrasing, simplifying, imagine that you are in the situation of the one who asked, acting, just put forward your thoughts for those interested, make a point, leave it without a point, do not answer at all, or maybe learn first for yourself what the question is really about… If I miss that, I know that my post might become useless and not only that - even frustrating. but "…it's a dangerous business, Frodo, going out your door. You step onto the road and if you don't keep your feet, there's no knowing where you might be swept off to."[P]]

Cheers[D]

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Oh, So many wonderful teachers in this forum!

Hi, Aperisic

Your explanation in post 263792 is just attractive. It has pointed out the root of my suspicion. I've known this expression for a long time, but I never used it before, because I used to worry about it would be read as a request to repeat what they'd said.

Your explanation reinforced the idea that when certain collocations form idioms or expressions, the meanings of them are fixed and free from (the) generally rules of interpretation.

Cheers!
[

As a former learner, I think my personal learning experience qualifies me to offer this perspective. I really don’t think majority of the foreign English learners learn their grammar through substandard grammar books. I think the difference is in the interpretation and teaching method of the teacher, as well as the perception of the students that either steer the students on the right track or otherwise. I am still learning everyday from watching programs like Discovery and The History Channel to improve my speech pattern and apply it to my writing. Definitely learning and adapting to think in English helped. The problem with many foreign learners is that the thought composing process is done in their own language. The writing part is put through a translation process. The result often is a mixture of English grammar and their own which may sound quite stiff and unnatural. I can say this. It’s not easy for foreigners to learn and master English. By that, I mean gaining full control of fluent written and spoken skills and avoiding making common mistakes. For many Asian learners it’s particularly difficult because their languages are not formed by alphabets, compounded by the lack or consistent exposure and contact with English speaking natives. For myself, spoken English and audio-visuals have a big impact on my written English. But that’s just me and I believe each learner perceives and learns differently. This is the best forum I have come across in terms of the level of English experts and control of the forum. Well, every now and then, a couple of strays show up but that’s inevitable. That’s my two cents.
They are participles because they are verbal adjectives modifying the verb in action 'to bring' and 'to authorise' which have been replaced by bringing and authorising respectively.
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