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Hello,

I am in doubt about the following statements:

IT TOOK THE COMPUTER THREE SECONDS TO SOLVE THE EQUATION THAT HAS BEEN CONFUSING THE MATHEMATICIANS FOR SEVERAL DAYS.

CALMING THE RESIDENTS, THE FIREMEN ASSURED THAT THE FLAMES WOULD SOON BE EXTINGUISHED.

What are they?? Present participle or gerund????

Please reply!!!

Thanks

Maria P.
Hi Maria,

I already responded to this in another thread. If it was you in that case, please don't post things twice, as it makes more work for us.Emotion: smile

Thanks, Clive
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And if it was not you-- and since I cannot find that thread-- both of your -ing verbs are participles: 'has been confusing' is a finite verb and 'calming' is a nonfinite verb whose clause is serving as an adverb.
Hi

A note to CJ- a present participle is a VERB... NOT an adjective! To be exact it is a continuous verb.

words ending in -ing like 'crying' may be an adjective, gerund or a present participle (ie: VERB)

for example.

She is crying ( crying functions as a verb- present participle)
The crying baby upset me (adjective-describing the baby)
The crying of the child was enough to break a grown mans' heart (gerund- its a verbal noun)

Sorry but one of my Grade 8 Learners recently got a host of examples wrong in my class and referred me to your answer.

Have a good day.
Anonymous a present participle is a VERB... NOT an adjective! To be exact it is a continuous verb
AnonymousSorry but one of my Grade 8 Learners recently got a host of examples wrong in my class and referred me to your answer.
If you wish your students to take a more restrictive definition of "participle" for the purposes of the course you're teaching, you need to make that clear to them.

If you take a look at the literature on the subject you will find that many experts on the subject take a broader view of what a participle is. Huddleston, in Introduction to the Grammar of English (Cambridge Textbooks in Linguistics) gives the following examples of participles, all of which you would claim, if I understand the nomenclature you're using in your class, are not participles at all:

He pointed toward the setting sun.
He was concerned about the rapidly falling share prices.
She was resting after her record-breaking swim.
He was a charming fellow.


also observing, "some scholars use the term [participle] more restrictively than others".

(The broader definition of Huddleston is typical of the definition used in all schools in the United States.)

Although it is unfortunate, it is all too true that students often have to split their allegiance between what is expected in class and what the world at large has to say on any given subject. An awareness of these discrepancies in approach would be beneficial for both students and teachers.

CJ
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Hello everyone!
I just wanted to know whether this is Present participle or gerund:
"...
and especially to identify those at risk of
developing severe life-threatening allergic reactions..."

Please reply, and thanks!
Felipe.
The entire sagment is a noun phrase as it's preceeded by a preposition [of].
However, if we break it down further, developing is a participle and threatening is an adjective. that's how it appeared to me.

developing
[ pres. participlpe] severe life-threatening [compound adjective] allergic reactions.
Gerunds are the nominal forms (noun forms) of verbs, that is, verb forms in -ing used as nouns.
Present (and past) participles are adjectival forms of verbs. The present participles are verb forms in -ing used as adjectives.
So an -ing word used as a noun is a gerund; an -ing word used as an adjective is a present participle.

a long stick - a walking stick Both "long" and "walking" are adjectives. In this context "walking" is a present participle.
colorful parrots - speaking parrots. Both "colorful" and "speaking" are adjectives. In this context "speaking" is a present participle.
an efficient machine - a washing machine Both "efficient" and "washing" are adjectives. "washing" is a present participle.
a machine for the purification of chemicals - a machine for washing Both "purification" and "washing" are nouns. "washing" is a gerund in this context.
a machine that purifies - a machine that washes. Both "purifies" and "washes" are verbs. There are no gerunds or participles here.
fires are prohibited in this area - hunting is prohibited in this area. Both "fires" and "hunting" are nouns. "hunting" is a gerund in this context.
One note of caution: -ing words that denote physical objects are plain nouns, not gerunds.
The building collapsed. "building" is a noun, but not a gerund.
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AnonymousPresent participle or gerund:
"... and especially to identify those at risk of

developing severe life-threatening allergic reactions..."
developing - noun - gerund
life-threatening - adjective - present participle

CJ
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