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in class

in the class

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anonymous

in class

in the class

Examples.

in class

They didn't talk to me that much in class but out of class they'd confide in me.
('in class' is simply a location. It doesn't matter which class it is.)
Many are also in class every other Saturday and for three weeks over the summer.
('in class' is simply a location. It doesn't matter which class it is.)


in the class

Many students at this university take a class in political theory, but exactly what students are expected to learn in the class is rarely communicated.
(Which class? The class, that is, the class in political theory previously mentioned.)
I'm in an advanced math course. There are just four in the class, so we're going to get individualized attention.
(Which class? The class, that is, the class in advanced math previously mentioned.)

CJ

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'In class' is more common in BrE, as you see in this Ngram :

We would need more context to tell you is one is more appropriate than the other in a particular utterance.

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Comments  
As 'class' is a noun and nouns always take some determiner. So I would say 'in a class', in the class, in my class, in your class, in her class but never 'in class'.
 fivejedjon's reply was promoted to an answer.
 CalifJim's reply was promoted to an answer.
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fivejedjon'In class' is more common in BrE, as you see in this Ngram :

That's not always the case, because I hadn't heard anyone say that until after I left school in the UK.