Hello. I am a student learning grammar. I have a final and there are three things in dont understand. I do not get Appositives/Appositive Phrases, Predict pronouns/nouns/adjectives, and direct/indirect objects. Thank you!
Do you have to sit for that final exam next year? Because that's a lot to study.
Do you have any doubts in particular, or you need complete, detailed explanations of each point you've mentioned?
BTW, I've never heard of "predict" pronouns, nouns or adjectives.
If you can help me a bit here, I'll try to help too. Emotion: smile

I am also stuying very hard. Gosh, I am having problems with questions. Do you know that making the right question is most difficult part of learning English? What do you mean by "predict" pronouns, Miriam?
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Maj, I agree with you that asking the right questions, or wording your questions correctly, is not always easy. And I don't think that applies to learning a foreign language only. I think that much of the "ineffective" communication among people these days is due to the lack of good communication and language skills, even in our first language.
There is something that is more difficult, though. And that is asking the right question *** you have carefully read the text which brings up a doubt.
If you read again, you will see that I really didn't mean a thing by "predict" pronouns. I was asking the Guest to explain it for me! Emotion: smile

Have you read "Alice's Adventures in Wonderland"? It's one of my favourite books!
This is from Chapter VII, 'A Mad Tea-Party':

"The Hatter opened his eyes very wide on hearing this; but all he said was, 'Why is a raven like a writing-desk?'

'Come, we shall have some fun now!' thought Alice. 'I'm glad they've begun asking riddles.--I believe I can guess that', she added aloud.

'Do you mean that you think you can find out the answer to it?' said the March Hare.

'Exactly so', said Alice.

'Then you should say what you mean', the March Hare went on.

'I do', Alice hastily replied; 'at least-at least I mean what I say-that's the same thing, you know.'

'Not the same thing a bit!' said the Hatter. 'You might just as well say that "I see what I eat" is the same thing as "I eat what I see"!'


well, i think you mean predicate and not predict, i am sure i am right!

examples of predicate nouns:

1. i am a TAILOR.

2. I take your pictures with a camera, i am a PHOTOGRAPHER.

examples of predicate adjectives:

1. the landowner is WEALTHY and RICH.

2. the gardener is DILIGENT with his work.

Supplying predicate nouns after linking verbs
(the color blue words are the linking verbs and the color red words are the predicate pronoun.)

1. I am a shoemaker.
2. My father is a judge.
3. He is a good actor.
4. He was a well-known author.
5. Our neighbor is a young priest.

Supplying predicate adjectives after linking verbs.
( the color blue words are the linking verbs and the color red words are the predicate adjectives.)

1. The landowner is wealthy.
2. The gardener is diligent with his work.
3. The mangoes are sweet.
4. The story was interesting.

Supplying infinitives after linking verbs
(the color blue words are the linking verbs and the color red words are the infinitives.)
1. A jet plane seems to go faster than sound.
2. My dream is to be successful in my profession.
3. My plan remains to be unchanged this summer.
4. Rice seems to be inexpensive in the Central Plains.
5. My father’s work is to do commercials on TV.


Linking verbs connect the subject of the sentence to nouns, adjectives or infinitives that rename, describe or refer to the subject of the sentence. These nouns are called predicate nouns and the adjectives are called predicate adjectives.

Supplying infinitive phrases after predicate nouns or predicate adjectives in sentences that begin with “It.”
(the color blue words are the predicate nouns or predicate adjectives and the color red words are the infinitive phrases.)

The defenders of the fort did not surrender although they were outnumbered.
a) It was heroic to fight although they were outnumbered.
b) It was their mission to defend the fort.

The mountain climbers went slowly up the slopes of the rocky mountain.
a) It was difficult to climb the slopes of the rocky mountain.
b) It was a challenge to climb the slopes of the rocky mountain.


When a sentence starts with it followed by the linking verb is, was becomes, seems, looks or appears this is the pattern:

It + linking verb + predicate adjective or predicate noun + infinitive phrase.
Students: We have free audio pronunciation exercises.
Meaning: discuss
Sentence: We take up stories in our English.


A. Study the sentences below. Notice that the italicized verbs are followed either by nouns (nos. 1-3), by to + verb (nos. 4-5) or by –ing verbs (no. 6). The sentences would not be complete without these words. These words which answer the question [verb + what] or [verb + whom] are called the direct objects of the verbs. Verbs that need direct objects to complete the sentences are called transitive verbs.

Examples: 1. Joey will present the second topic.
2. We will welcome suggestions.
3. The chart shows the problems.
4. The farmers try to increase to increase their income.
5. Would you like to hear about them?
6. We are discussing (or taking up) farming and its problems.


Supply the missing direct objects in the following sentences. Give a noun in the sentences on the space provided. In other sentences, give the correct form of the verb needed.

1. We can buy _____N_______in the drugstore.
2. My parents own ___N______. I don’t own ___N_____.
3. I plan_____(to + vreb)____when I grow up. I don’t plan ______(to + verb)___.
4. My children try ___(to + verb)_____in school.
5. I enjoy ______(-ing vreb)_____. I don’t enjoy ___(-ing verb)____.

Examples on verbs that may have nouns or to + verb for direct objects.

1. The heroic boy deserves to get the scholarship.
2. The heroic boy deserves a medal.
3. I seldom forget to pay my bills on time.
4. We are planning to go on a vacation.
5. I wan to buy a brand new car.

Example on verbs that may have nouns, (to + verb) or –ing verbs for direct objects.

1. Most children like candies.
2. Most children like to eat candies.
3. Most children like eating candies.

1. The teacher began the lesson.
2. The teacher began to teach the lesson.
3. The teacher began teaching the lesson.

1. She continued her story.
2. She continued to write her story.
3. She continued writing her story.

1. Molihua started her assignment.
2. Molihua started to do her assignment.
3. Molihua started doing her assignment.

1. Janus neglected his studies.
2. Janus neglected to study.
3. Janus neglected studying.

( take note that all of these sentences expresses the same thought but only said on a different manner.)


WORD FOR TODAY: hit the sack
Meaning: to sleep
Sentence: I want to hit the sack early.
(this idiomatic expression is commonly used.)


Read these sentences carefully. Noticed that the highlighted direct objects are followed by (to + noun) or for + noun).

1. We owe our lives to our parents.
2. They buy clothes and food for their children.
3. The farmers give rice to us.
4. The teacher showed the pictures to us.

Here is another way of saying the above sentences. The words in color pink are direct objects. Can you tell why? The words in color blue are indirect objects that show for whom or to whom the action was done. The words for or to, however are not used in the following sentences. Can you tell where the indirect object of a sentence is placed. Notice also that the indirect objects may be a noun ( nos. 1 & 2) or a pronoun ( nos. 3-4).

1. W owe our parents our lives.
2. They buy their children clothes and food.
3. The farmers give us rice.
4. The teacher showed us pictures.

Indirect objects occupy this position in sentences:Subject * Transitive Verb * Indirect Object * Direct Object


Rearrange the words in the following sentences so that the underlined expressions will become the indirect object of the sentences. Where will you place these expressions? What will you do with the prepositions to or for?

1. Sheep gives wool to us.
2. My parents buy clothes for me.
3. The pharmacist sells medicine to the people.
4. Our teacher reads some stories to us.
5. The clock tells the time to us.