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Hi there,

Can you check for me if second, third and forth sentences can be grammatical possible and correct, please?


I am not liable for any damage caused by mechanical issues. (grammatical)

I am not liable for any damaged causing by mechanical issues. (can this one be possible?)

I am not liable for any damaged that is causing by mechanical issues. (is this one correct?)

I am not liable for any damaged that is caused by mechanical issues. (is this one correct as well?)


Many thanks.

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You wrote "damage" in the first sentence and "damaged" in the other three. I will assume that you meant "damage" in all four.

John AkiI am not liable for any damage caused by mechanical issues. (grammatical)

Yes.

John AkiI am not liable for any damage causing by mechanical issues. (can this one be possible?)

No.

John AkiI am not liable for any damage that is causing by mechanical issues. (is this one correct?)

No.

John AkiI am not liable for any damage that is caused by mechanical issues. (is this one correct as well?)

Yes.

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Thanks Sir, yes I meant " damage " as a noun. But here I can't understand why...

I am not liable for any damage causing by mechanical issues. (In the same sentences second "verb" with ing)

I spent a lot of the time reading. (In the same sentences second "verb" with ing)

I like reading/watching/cleaning house. (In the same sentences second "verb" with ing)

I am confident that second and third sentences are correct, why the first one sentence is ungrammatical? would you pls explain to me?


"That" is a conjunction, which means another new sentences.

I am not liable for any damage that is causing by mechanical issues. ( I can't understand why this is wrong here?)

I am causing my class a problem. (Active voice)

That caused a problem. (Past simple, Active voice)

That is causing a problem. (Active voice) (is this one grammatical? )

That is caused a problem. (Passive voice)


Thanks in advance.

John AkiI am not liable for any damage causing by mechanical issues.
I spent a lot of the time reading.
I like reading/watching/cleaning house.
John AkiI am confident that second and third sentences are correct

Right.

(In BrE we do not use the expression "cleaning house", but I believe it is used in AmE.)

John Akiwhy the first one sentence is ungrammatical?

"causing by ~" is not a possible pattern (in the sense that you are trying to use it). We say:

X (that is) caused by Y (passive simple present)
X (that is) being caused by Y (passive present progressive)
X (that is) causing Y (active present progressive)

There is no "causing by".

John AkiI am causing my class a problem. (Active voice)
That caused a problem. (Past simple, Active voice)

Yes.

John AkiThat is causing a problem. (Active voice) (is this one grammatical? )

Yes.

John AkiThat is caused a problem. (Passive voice)

This is ungrammatical. The corresponding passive sentences would be:

The problem is/was caused by that.
The problem is/was being caused by that. (progressive tense)

Thanks Sir.

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