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1. Sometimes an employer does not listen closely to suggestions from employees, making workers feel undervalued.
For this sentence, I think "making worker...." is wrong in regards to the rest of the sentence. Why we need a participial clause here?

2. The city is populated by many people who, although their common language is English, the languages at home range from speaking Armenian to Zapotec. <If you need to change the underlined part to make the sentence grammatically correct or concise>

A) same

B) speak languages at home that range from Armenian to Zapotec.

3. The age of eighty-two having been reached, the children's author Geisel startled the world by writing another book.

A) When he reached the age of eighty-two

B) Having reached for the age of eighty-two

I chose B, but the answer was A. I think in A, it says "he", but in the second clause, it defines the person already, so usually we don't mention anything in the first clause. that's why I chose B.

Thanks for helping.
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Comments  (Page 2) 
Hmmmm, CJ, very interesting...
I know this is really awkward and convoluted Emotion: super angry, but the phrase does refer to the employer. Re-written as a full dependent clause, the relatiohship is a bit clearer.
Making workers feel undervalued, the employer does not listen closely to their suggestions. (this is a common form for a participial phrase, placed close to the noun that it modifies)
The employer that makes workers feel undervalued sometimes does not listen to their suggestions.
I have seen similar structures analyzed in this way on at least one reference site. It would take a bit of sleuthing to find it again...
Another way to look at it is that the entire main clause can be transformed into a gerund phrase, which in turn, becomes the subject of a sentence where the participle has been transformed into a full verb.
Sometimes the employer's not listening closely to employees' suggestions makes them feel undervalued.
This preserves the semantics better than the other two re-writes.
Ain't English fun? Emotion: big smile
AlpheccaStars soon after the emergence of modern English ,
I must have slept through that.
Thanks, all. I'll probably require a little more indoctrination. - A.
Students: Are you brave enough to let our tutors analyse your pronunciation?
AlpheccaStarsSometimes the employer's not listening closely to employees' suggestions makes them feel undervalued.
This preserves the semantics better than the other two re-writes.
I wouldn't say that it preserves the semantics better. I would say simply that it preserves the semantics, because the other two rewrites don't preserve the semantics at all.
Making workers feel undervalued, the employer does not listen closely to their suggestions.

has none of the intent of the original, for example. In fact, it's the total reverse, the intent being
Not listening closely to their suggestions, the employer makes workers feel undervalued.
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I still think (leaving aside its status as phrase or clause) that the participial structure ("making ...") is adverbial, not adjectival. It's closely related (if not identical in meaning) to the same sentence with the adverb thereby added.
The employer does not listen closely to their suggestions, thereby making workers feel undervalued.
When you put the same participial in front, the meaning changes, so you can't put the same phrase in front. You have to change the main clause into a participial. In this case, the equivalent is to add by, not thereby:
By not listening closely to their suggestions, the employer makes workers feel undervalued.
That's why the sentence with Making ... at the beginning is not semantically the same as the sentence with making ... at the end.
Getting things in the wrong order reverses cause and effect.
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Compare our example with the following semantically equivalent pairs:
Edward signed the papers, (thereby) making the contract official.
(By) Signing the papers, Edward made the contract official.
Susan opened the door, (thereby) letting the cat out.
(By) Opening the door, Susan let the cat out.
Sam jumped up and screamed, (thereby) frightening the children.
(By) Jumping up and screaming, Sam frightened the children.

How making the contract official can describe Edward adjectivally, how letting the cat out can describe Susan adjectivally, and how frightening the childrencan describe Sam adjectivally are all mysteries. Emotion: smile
I don't see how these participials, extraposed before or after the main clause, can compare with truly adjectival participles:
The legislation being debated is very controversial. (= Being debated, the legislation is very controversial???)

The man running away from us is a thief. (= Running away from us, the man is a thief???)
The woman standing in the lobby appeared to be ill. (= Standing in the lobby, the woman appeared to be ill???)
The function completely changes depending where the participial is located in the sentence.
CJ
Seems like a big discussion here. Thanks all, espeically Avangi's explanation for my second question. lol
Hi CJ:
I agree with you that the participial phrase modifies the verb, not the subject.
I was making a (lame) attempt to fit it the analysis wto agree with the various reference sites on English Grammar that instruct that present participles (and phrases headed by them) are adjectival, not adverbial.
Prepositional phrases can have either adverbial or adjectival functions; perhaps the same is true for present participial phrases.
Students: We have free audio pronunciation exercises.
Google
participial adverbial
and you'll get a plethora of opinions on the subject! Emotion: big smile
CJ