I don't exactly understand what it means.
Especially (given that)...is it an adverb? What is it supposed to mean??
Hope that someone could tell me which part of the sentence is a clause and which it modifies.
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Modern linguists encounter certain difficulties because the primary data for deriving grammar rules is speech (very flexible, unstable and quickly evolving). What are these difficulties?
So, "given that" means "taking into account that"
Generally, "given" means "known" and/or "assuming that" (as in your case).
«Can you calculate the trajectory, given the intitial speed?», which is equal to :
«Please, calculate the trajectory. The initial spped is given.»
«Hpoe that someone could tell me which part of the sentence is a clause and which it modifies»
The main clause:
"What might be some of the difficulties"
Dependent clause (modifies the word "difficulties"):
"that modern linguists would encounter"
Anther dependent clause (modifies the preceding clause):
"speech is used as the primary data for finding out the grammatical rules in a language"
And "given that" is used to match the two clauses.