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Hi, I usually encounter the underlined part of sentences 1-4 in my readings. Does somebody know what they are called and what are the roles they played in English Grammar and Structure? Are they phrases or clauses or modifiers or adverbs? What word/s do they modify in their respective sentences? Thank you.

1. Lee is one of the familiar faces during the event, particularly due to his involvement in intensive workshops.

2. The state corporation's total remittances this year jumped 60.81 percent to 700 billion, exceeding the 460 billion remitted in 2021.

3. Ramirez thanked the local government for donating the 25 hectares of land, citing the place will be monumental in the history of politics.

4. In 2014, the former president dropped him from the list, citing issues linking him to illegal drug possession.

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red olive 9011. Lee is one of the familiar faces during the event, particularly due to his involvement in intensive workshops.

Prepositional phrase. Adjunct (adverbial)

https://www.thefreedictionary.com/due+to

red olive 9012. The state corporation's total remittances this year jumped 60.81 percent to 700 billion, exceeding the 460 billion remitted in 2021.

Non-finite clause modifying "remittances". It can be rewritten as a full clause.

The state corporation's total remittances this year jumped 60.81 percent to 700 billion, which exceeded the 460 billion remitted in 2021.

red olive 9013. Ramirez thanked the local government for donating the 25 hectares of land, citing the place will be monumental in the history of politics.

Non-finite clause modifying "Ramirez". It can be rewritten as a full clause.

Ramirez thanked the local government for donating the 25 hectares of land. He cited that the place will be monumental in the history of politics.

Ramirez, who cited that the place will be monumental in the history of politics, thanked the local government for donating the 25 hectares of land.

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red olive 901Does somebody know what they are called

In "modern grammar", which essentially means the Cambridge Grammar of the English Language, they're called "supplements". They can be any kind of phrase or clause that provides supplementary information. They are taken to be in contrast to "integrated" phrases or clauses, which are considered to contain the basic structure of the sentence.

The three examples you cited with -ing forms are all participle clauses.

CJ

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CalifJimIn "modern grammar", which essentially means the Cambridge Grammar of the English Language, they're called "supplements".

I have also heard the term "adjunct."

https://glossary.sil.org/term/adjunct

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AlpheccaStarsI have also heard the term "adjunct."

That's an "integrated" part of the sentence, a verb modifier, so not a supplement.

For some reason, noun modifiers don't have a special name, but verb modifiers do (adjunct).

Among other constructions, the non-restrictive relative clause is one that gets the name "supplement", by the way.

The pot [with the broken lid]mod fell [on the floor]adjnct [with a crash]adjnct, [scaring the cat]supp, [which was to be expected]supp.

I'm sure some CGEL enthusiast will come by, [sword drawn]supp, to correct whatever is wrong with the information in this thread.

CJ

Your glossary link has an interesting take on "noun adjunct". I'd never heard of that one.

Thank you, AlpheccaStars and CJ .Just a follow-up. Since there are 2 clauses in sentences 2,3, and 4. Would they now be called compound sentences or complex sentences or just simple sentences. Thanks.
red olive 901compound sentences or complex sentences or just simple sentences

Now you are getting us mired into the issues of contemporary English grammar versus traditional English grammar. The terminology and analysis is quite different.

Here is the traditional analysis:

https://grammar.yourdictionary.com/sentences/writing-complex-compound-sentences.html

Those classifications do not exist in modern linguistics, or I have not seen them in that context.

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Sorry about that. But the textbooks and english references that are being used here in our country are all traditional. That maybe the reason why we find it so hard to learn the language. When we analyzed sentences that we read, we were trained to spot if those are simple, compound or complex or compound complex sentences. Adjunct, integrated - those were not taught to us. So we were confused.