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" As insightful as some of their speculations about the nature were, most of the ideas of the ancient Greeks would not pass muster as valid science in modern times."

asking : Could you explain above sentence by analysing grammatical structure of the sentence?

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" As insightful as some of their speculations about the nature were,"

The Greeks studied nature and had some interesting insights. They made educated guesses about the causes and reasons for how the natural world works (Laws of nature ) Although these speculations were very insightful...

...most of the ideas of the ancient Greeks would not pass muster as valid science in modern times."

Their ideas would not be considered as valid scientifically, because they were not based on the scientific method.

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As insightful as some of their speculations about the nature were, [most of the ideas of the ancient Greeks would not pass muster as valid science in modern times].

The basic grammatical structure consists of the underlined supplementary adjunct, followed by the bracketed main clause.

The adjunct could probably be paraphrased as "although their speculations about the nature were insightful", thus giving it a concessive interpretation.