+0
History repeated itself only to leave the country in much worse condition than before. Thus, the constitutional head of the state, i.e., the King Gyanendra, had no choice but to assume the position of the head of the government too.
And he did so in Feb. 2005 and included his old friends, faithfuls or monarchists in the government with the hope that they will somehow be able to make the 1990 constitution functional again through the election of local and central government bodies.

But by then, the agitating parties had made considerable progress in defaming the king, misguiding the international community on the king's actions and intentions, and getting stronger to make impossible for any government other than their own to rule.

Somehow, they succeeded in convincing the world that taking part in the election of representatives of the people for different levels of the government is against the democratic norms in case of Nepal.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

By then agitating parties had made considerable progress in defending the king...

Is it necessary to write 'had made' in the above?

Would you simply write '

By then agitating parties made considerable progress in defending the king...' ?

I would like to read your comments.
1 2
Comments  
I would write «had made», because by that moment they had already made considerable progress. That is, at that moment that was already a past action, so, since the action is preceding to a past moment, Past Perfect should be used.
I agree with Ant_222...
Students: We have free audio pronunciation exercises.
yes, had made
also because it's a main sentence, not a subordinate
the tenses are stricter in the mains
while in the coordinates you're easier allowed to use tense simplification
Thanks everybody for the replies.
I am sorry to say I can't take in your point.

I clearly understands that it was a past event.
«I clearly understands that it was a past event.»

No that it's only a past event, but also an event which WAS in the past at some past moment. That is, at that moment you would say «...parties have made... progress...».

Since that moment is mentioned, the writer must show the action was already finished at that moment. Otherwise, to the reader it won't be clear whether the parties made progress before feb. 2005 or not.

Past Perfect literally means finished by a past moment...

Future Perfect — finished by a future moment:
Tomorrow I will have finished typing this post.
Site Hint: Check out our list of pronunciation videos.
Thanks Ant_222 for the reply.

You see I have no difficulty in understanding the future perfect tense.

Let us say an event of training at the gym. [ As a matter of fact I just came home after training. I trained 90 minutes today.]

I started training at 16.30pm.

At that time, I could say the following:

I will have finished training at about 18.00pm.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

I will start writing a letter to a friend around 23.00pm. When I start writing, I will say the following:

I will have finished writing this letter to Christer at about 23.45pm.

When it comes to the past perfect, the underlying facts are murky. I am struggling to understand the past perfect.
«You see I have no difficulty in understanding the future perfect tense.»

I wanted to show you the analogy between all the perfect tenses.

«I will have finished training at about 18.00pm.»

Hmm, I'd say it using future simple...

«When it comes to the past perfect, the underlying facts are murky. I am struggling to understand the past perfect.»

Try asking more specific questions concerning the given explanations. For example, which facts do you think are murky?
Timeline:

distant past event a happened event b happened present time

Event a: packing your bag to go to the gym

Event b: going to the gym

Okay, look at the timeline. You start talking about event b, which is in the past. I went to the gym. But while talking about b, you want to say something about event a, which was even further in the past. That's when you use past perfect. I went to the gym but when I got there I realized I had forgotten to put my gym pass in my bag.
Teachers: We supply a list of EFL job vacancies
Show more