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He came on Friday, when it was raining hard.

He came on Friday, on which it was raining hard.

Those two sentences are from my grammar book. It says when equals on which, and both of them modify the noun "Friday". (Friday is part of the adverb "on Friday")

Then how about this one? Is it OK too?

He came yesterday when it was raining hard.

He came yesterday on which it was raining hard.

In those two sentences, "yesterday" is an "adverb", not a noun. And there's no way that it can be considered as a "noun".(The basic snetence is "He came yesterday." , not "He came on yesterday."so the "yesterday" must be an adverb without fail) As what I was learned from my grammar book, relative adverb "when" can only modify a "noun". According to my theory, are those sentences "wrong"?

Please give me your opinion and I'd appreciate it.
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Viceidol

He came on Friday, when it was raining hard. Good.

He came on Friday, on which it was raining hard. Not good.

Those two sentences are from my grammar book. It says when equals on which, and both of them modify the noun "Friday". (Friday is part of the adverb "on Friday")

Then how about this one? Is it OK too?

He came yesterday when it was raining hard.

He came yesterday on which it was raining hard.

In those two sentences, "yesterday" is an "adverb", not a noun. And there's no way that it can be considered as a "noun".(The basic snetence is "He came yesterday." , not "He came on yesterday."so the "yesterday" must be an adverb without fail) As what I was learned from my grammar book, relative adverb "when" can only modify a "noun". According to my theory, are those sentences "wrong"?

Please give me your opinion and I'd appreciate it.

The other two sentences are like the first two.
He came on Friday, on which it was raining hard is technically correct, and it's an accurate paraphrase of He came on Friday, when it was raining hard. But it is not natural sounding. No one would say it or write it.

The version with yesterday, on which is not correct because you can't say on yesterday.

CJ
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Thank you, CalifJim.

You said the version with yesterday, on which is not correct, so does that mean "He came yesterday when it was raining hard." is correct?

(If so, that would be strange. Because my book says "when=on which/in which/at which", if the version with on which is incorrect, so will be the version with when, shouldn't it?) )
ViceidolThank you, CalifJim.

You said the version with yesterday, on which is not correct, so does that mean "He came yesterday when it was raining hard." is correct?

(If so, that would be strange. Because my book says "when=on which/in which/at which", if the version with on which is incorrect, so will be the version with when, shouldn't it?) )
Hi Viceidol,

"When=on which/in which/at which" is only true in cases where 'when' represents phrases / elements that go with preposition 'on/in/at/'. Look at the patterns from your sentences again:

1. ..... on Friday, when .... = .... on Friday, on which ..... (okay since Friday goes with 'on')
2. ..... yesterday, when .... = .... yesterday, on which ..... (not okay since yesterday does not go with 'on')

The second pattern is not symmetrical! The formula from your text book cannot be applied generally. Look at the following examples that are nonsensical if we blindly replace 'when' with 'on which':

1. Why did you say so when it made no sense? => Why did you say so on which it made no sense? (nonsensical)
2. See me immediately when you feel bored => See me immediately on which you feel bored (nonsensical)

Hope that helps,
Hoa Thai
Your explanation is very detailed, thanks, Hoa Thai.

But I still have one question: Is that "yesterday" considered a noun, or an adverb?

When it is considered a part of the sentence "He came yesterday.", it is an "adverb".
But when it is considered the antecedent of "when it was raining hard" ", it is a "noun".

So is that possible? A word could actually have TWO parts of speech at the same time in the same sentence? I don't think that's possible. What's your opinion?
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ViceidolYour explanation is very detailed, thanks, Hoa Thai.

But I still have one question: Is that "yesterday" considered a noun, or an adverb?

When it is considered a part of the sentence "He came yesterday.", it is an "adverb".
But when it is considered the antecedent of "when it was raining hard" ", it is a "noun".
So is that possible? A word could actually have TWO parts of speech at the same time in the same sentence? I don't think that's possible. What's your opinion?

Hi,

Sorry! 'Yesterday' is a noun. It does not have to be an adverb just because it comes right after a verb.

"He went home quickly;" quickly is an adverb - not home! Where did he go? Home - How did he go? Quickly
"He came yesterday suddenly;" suddenly
is an adverb - not yesterday! When did he come? Yesterday - How did he come? Suddenly.

Hoa Thai