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Here is the question,

When theories formerly considered to be ___ in their scientific objectivity are found instead to reflect a consistent observational and evaluative bias, then the presumed neutrality of science gives way to the recognition that categories of knowledge are human ___.
A. disinterested … constructions
B. callous … errors
C. verifiable … prejudices
D. convincing … imperatives
E. unassailable … fantasies

It's totally frustrating. I have no clue at all what the sentense is implying. Emotion: tongue tied:
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I'd say c, but could also possibly be A.

This is a tricky one alright!
Mine is the opinion of an ESL speaker but here's my guess:

I would prefer E: When theories formerly considered to be UNASSAILABLE in their scientific objectivity are found instead to reflect a consistent observational and evaluative bias, then the presumed neutrality of science gives way to the recognition that categories of knowledge are human FANTASIES.

The theories were believed to be objective and unassailable => then were found to be based on observations and evaluations that are NOT objective (are biased) => therefore one cannot rely on the neutrality of science, because bias means that categories of knowledge are subjective, i.e. the product of human fantasies.
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It’s hard to figure out what the sentence means. You shed a light on it for me. Thank you!

But why don’t you account the choice A in?

You know, it could be like this,

The theories formerly were believed to be objective and disinterested (free of bias) => Later they were instead found to be biased, and not objective => So, people refer them (theories) to the recognition that human constructed/created these categories of knowledge, i.e. they are subjective.

I am not sure if I got it right.
I'd say C, because "prejudices" is to me the best antomym for "neutrality".

I'd say C, because "prejudices" is to me the best antomym for "neutrality".

Could you please gimme a little more explanation? Like what does the sentence mean, after it's completed by the choice C?
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I'm afraid I paid more attention to the terms proposed than to the real meaning of the sentence.
In the first part, they use the word "neutrality", so I thought if the second part is in opposition with the first, then "prejudice" works fine as the contrary to "neutrality".
I have a corrected version of this that informs me that the answer is option A. As a native speaker, I must admit that I would not have chosen that option, as I believe "formerly considered to be disinterested in their scientific objectivity" is a very poorly constructed sentence. However, given a test environment, the way to go about this would be to look at the second blank: "categories of knowledge are human constructions" is the only plausible answer here. The only other option that makes any sense is E, "human fantasies. But this seems too strong a statement here.