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1. If you visit the Lincoln Memorial, you will see a giant statue of Lincoln dominating/which/that dominates_ (dominate) the center of the Memorial.



2. The Washington Monument was built/is built_ (build) in honor of George Washington, the first president of the United States.



3.. Abraham Lincoln's famous speeches were engraved/ are engraved (engrave) on the interior walls of the Lincoln Memorial.



4. The Oval Office, situated/which is situated_ (situate) in the White House, is the office of the President of the United States.



5. Amelia Earhart was the first woman to fly/that/who flew_ (fly) solo across the Atlantic Ocean.



6. Ernest Hemingway was a famous American writer who won/winning_ (win) the 1954 Nobel Prize for literature.



8. Queen Victoria was/is_ (be) the first sovereign to reside in Buckingham Palace.



Are the blue answers correct? Thanks for your help.
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All of the black options are ok. Are the blue options your alternative answers? Not all of them work.

1. I suppose 'that dominates' is feasible but it isn't as stylish as 'dominating'.

2. No, 'is built' is not ok here. You need the past tense.

3. Yes I find are engraved as acceptable as were engraved.

4. Which is situated is ok but clumsier that just situated.

5. Who flew - I don't like it but I'm trying to think of any real grammatical reason. It's just not the way that we talk about the 'first' to do anything. They are the first to...

6. winning is incorrect. You need the past tense.

8. is is incorrect. You need the past tense.
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Thank you, Nona de Brit.

The blue answers are my alternatives. I have two questions about these exercises.

1. If you visit the Lincoln Memorial, you will see a giant statue of Lincoln dominating_/which/that dominates (dominate) the center of the Memorial.

2. The Washington Monument was built_/is built (build) in honor of George Washington, the first president of the United States.

3.. Abraham Lincoln's famous speeches were engraved/ are engraved (engrave) on the interior walls of the Lincoln Memorial.

4. The Oval Office, situated_/which is situated (situate) in the White House, is the office of the President of the United States.

5. Amelia Earhart was the first woman to fly_/that/who flew (fly) solo across the Atlantic Ocean.

6. Ernest Hemingway was a famous American writer who won_/winning (win) the 1954 Nobel Prize for literature.

8. Queen Victoria was_/is (be) the first sovereign to reside in Buckingham Palace.

Are the blue answers correct? Thanks for your help.

a. In 1, 4, both participles and relative clauses work. Can I conclude that participles and relative clauses are interchangeable when it comes to modifying a noun? Irregardless of the tense in the main clause and the relative clause? In 6, I meant to remove "who" and write the sentence as this:" 6. Ernest Hemingway was a famous American writer winning_ (win) the 1954 Nobel Prize for literature."

b. In 2, both answers are correct. I understand that "were engraved" means an action, which took place in the past, and "are engraved" describes the condition of the monument. In 5 and 8, I thought the sentence states a fact which do not change and should be expressed in the present tense. Could you explain to me why the correct answers are in the past tense.

c. Sentences 5, 8: infintives are used following the noun, not relative clauses. Is it because the noun is modified by "the first"?

I feel confused with these modifier issues, they are very confusing. If there is a rule governing/that governs the modifiers, I'd be very happy to hear about it.

I'd like to have your opinions. Thanks.