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People have the wrong idea about ethics.It does not exist primarily to punish,to repress, to condemn.There are courts, police and prisons for that and no one would claim they are governed by pure morality. Socrates died in prison, but he died more free than his judges.It is here, perhaps,that philosophy begins. It is here that ethics begins,ceaselessly, in each of us: at the point where no punishment is possible,no sanction is effective,no condemnation is necessary.
About 'here' or 'at the point', which point does it really refer to? It doesn't specifically refer to the situation where he died in prison, or does it?
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TakaIt doesn't specifically refer to the situation where he died in prison, or does it?
No. Not at all.
Philosophy and ethics begin at the point where no punishment is possible, no sanction is effective, no condemnation is necessary.
here = at the point where ...
The here is pointing forward in the text.
CJ
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 Here pointing 'forward'? Which part in the text, Jim?
I know 'here = at the point where', but my question is, what situation of Socrates described in front is the point 'at the point' (i.e. here) refers to?