Please double check my essay, and feel free to comment on anything you see wrong.

Blood Doping


The use of body enhancing drugs has always been popular in the Athletic world during the past four decades. Blood Doping is an example of this, and it has been used by many Athletes in the past thirty years. The idea behind using blood doping is to increase the amount of Red Blood Cells (RBC) in the body. RBC’s main function in the body is to carry oxygen to the muscle, and athletes need a lot of this to reduce fatigue. Blood doping was originally developed to treat patients with AIDS, Anemia, Kidney problems, premature babies, and pregnant women. However, it made its way to the athletic world later on. This paper is going to discuss the two methods of blood doping: Blood transfusion, and stimulation of erythrocytes using Synthetic EPO, it will also discuss the tests that has been done to detect blood doping including how effective they are, and altitude training as an option.

Transfusion of blood is the “transfer of blood into a person’s veins” (7). This process consists of two different methods: Autologous and homologous transfusion (2). Autologous transfusion is the process by which the Athlete take a small portion of his/her own blood and freezes it for a few months, while the body automatically restores the lost blood and recover the condition of the body (2). The Athlete than introduces the frozen blood to the body, therefore increasing the amount of blood above normal level (2). However, the problem with this process is the long period of time the Athlete having to wait for the body to regain the lost blood. In addition, taken blood out of the Athlete may also cause dizziness (2). Homologous Transfusion on the other hand, works by transferring blood from another person who is identical in blood type (2). The three different types of blood are A, B, and O (2). The problem with this process is the possibility of receiving diseases from the donor through the donated blood (2). The practice of blood transfusion first appeared in the 1968 Olympics in Mexico, when an Athlete broke the outdoor one hour race record using Autologous Trasnfusion (7). It also made another appearance in the Tour de France, when the American Cyclist Tyler Hamilton was accused of practicing Homologous Transfusion (1).

Stimulation of Erythrocyte is a recent method of blood doping that is somewhat different from blood transfusion. It is a process that works by stimulating the kidney to produce more Erythrocyte, which is a hormone that is responsible for triggering the bone marrow to produce RBC (7). The more of this hormone present in the body, the more blood found as well. This works by giving the body Synthetic EPO, and it must be taken several times a week (7). This drug is a “genetically-engineered version of a natural hormone (Erythrocyte) produced by the kidney that stimulates RBC from the bone marrow” (8). Similar to blood transfusion, if the blood is produced at a very high amount, this would be very fatal to the body, in which the heart functions in a vicious manner and end up causing a stroke (7). Synthetic EPO made its first appearance during the 2002 Salt Lake City Olympics, in which three Athletes were caught to be using this substance.

It is very well known that these methods of doping are illegal in the sport world. The World Anti Doping Agency (WADA) has considered Blood doping as a method by which the Athlete uses an “Artificial Oxygen Carriers” (6). Theoretically, the detection of blood that uses Homologous Transfusion is much easier than Autologous Transfusion, and Synthetic EPO method (2). An explanation for this lies under the research of Neilson Et Al, who explain new test that has been done to detect if the method of blood doping has been done. Neilson states that every RBC has a specific set of blood group Antigens (2). These antigens are tagged with fluorescent dyes, then a machine known as a flow cytometer can differentiate cells with different antigens. The Antigens is then put through a laser that illustrates a graphical image of whether the Antigen is inherited from another person (2). This test was done on 25 patients, and the detection went on the right track with not a single predicament (2). However, the problem with this test is that it does not work on Autologous and Synthetic EPO method. In addition, if the sample does not contain any of the donated blood, the test would end up showing the antigens of the tested individual (2). There are methods to avoid this, but they are complicated and costly (2). Recently, most of the test used in competetions is based on the percentage of RBC in the blood (8). The normal RBC level in the blood is estimated to be around 40 – 45%. Any percentage that tops 50 is considered illegal (8). This proves to be effective because the out come of the two methods of blood doping is to increase the RBC above normal level which is 50 and higher. As a result, these methods of blood doping have always been illegal in the sport world, and there are still many researches to be conducted to accurately define the users of these substance and methods.

Ever since blood doping has become the main issue to some Athletes, Altitude training became an alternative method for others. Nowadays, few Athletes are trying to adapt to what’s called “sleep high, train low” (7). In other words, living at high altitude puts the athlete in a situation where he/she should overcome the high pressure (7). Similar to using the Synthetic EPO, since the athlete is breathing less oxygen in high altitudes, the kidney will automatically induce the production of Erythrocyte to produce more RBC for the increase of Oxygen intake (7). Unfortunately, some Athletes start to believe that “blood doping is no more immoral than altitude training” (7). However, Athletes such as the cyclist Jesus Monzano deny this statement, because “he nearly died after being injected with poorly stored blood in 2003” (7).

Hence, blood doping has been used by many Athletes in the past thirty years. Nowadays it is much harder for the Athlete to consider them as an option to win races due to the test that has been done to detect Blood transfusion, and the use of Synthetic EPO. However, this does not stop them from looking towards an alternative method. It is still unknown what the next substance or method will be made to disguise the true potential of cheaters.
It's a bit long so I'll just comment on the first couple of paragraphs and then you can review the rest yourself if any patterns of problems emerge. You have lots of random capital letters - why do you capitalise athlete for example? There are other incorrect uses of capital letters as well. You have a some difficulty with verb tenses, so check those, and your paragraphing needs some work.

The use of body enhancing (I think we normally talk of performance enhancing, not body enhancing) drugs has always been popular in the Athletic world during the past four decades. contradictory - it can't be 'always' and only in the past four decades.

Blood Doping is an example of this, and it has been used by many Athletes in the past thirty years. The idea behind using blood doping is to increase the amount of Red Blood Cells (RBC) in the body. RBC’s main function in the body is to carry oxygen to the muscles, and athletes need a lot of this to reduce fatigue. Blood doping was originally developed to treat patients with AIDS, Anemia, Kidney problems, and (otherwise you are saying patients with premature babies and patients with pregnant women) premature babies and pregnant women. However, it made its way to the athletic world.

This paper is going to discuss the two methods of blood doping: Blood transfusion, and stimulation of erythrocytes using Synthetic EPO. It will also discuss the tests that can be done to detect blood doping including how effective they are, and altitude training as an option. - (an option to what. At the moment you are saying as an option to test for blood doping.)

Transfusion of blood is the “transfer of blood into a person’s veins” (7). This process has two different methods: Autologous and homologous transfusion (2). Autologous transfusion is the process by which the Athlete takes a small amount of his/her own blood and freezes it for a few months, while the body automatically restores the lost blood and recovers the condition of the body (2). The Athlete than introduces the frozen blood to the body, therefore increasing the amount of blood above normal levels (2). However, the problem with this process is the long period that the Athlete has to wait for the body to regain the lost blood. In addition, taking blood out of the Athlete may also cause dizziness (2).

Homologous Transfusion on the other hand, works by transferring blood from another person who is identical in blood type (2). The three different types of blood are A, B, and O (2). The problem with this process is the possibility of receiving diseases from the donor through the donated blood (2).

The practice of blood transfusion first appeared in the 1968 Olympics in Mexico, when an Athlete broke the outdoor one hour race record using Autologous Transfusion (7). It made another appearance in the Tour de France, when the American Cyclist Tyler Hamilton was accused of practicing Homologous Transfusion (1).
Thanks a lot. Do you think its correct to seperate these paragraphs the way that you have done so?, can you tell me which words contain capital letter. Isn't "Athlete" a noun, so it must be capitalised?
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Only proper nouns are capitalised, not all nouns. There are lots of other nouns that you haven't capitalised. Check all of your capitals; is it a proper noun?

I think you do need more paragraphs. Each separate idea or thought should have its own paragraph.
thankyou so much

nona the brit, you rock man!