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An arryay of molecules form a kind of blanket, holding outgoing radiation for a while and warming the surface.
About the 'holding...and warming', grammatically speaking, is it a reduced adverb phrase or not?
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I think they are adjective phrases, modifying the noun blanket. They do not modify the verb "form"
So you don't think this makes sence?
Holding outgoing radiation for a while and warming the surface, an arryay of molecules form a kind of blanket.
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An arryay of molecules form a kind of blanket, holding outgoing radiation for a while and warming the surface.

About the 'holding...and warming', grammatically speaking, is it a reduced adverb phrase or not?

That's if you can answer the question how do they form the blanket? (by) holding and warming. Not sure that is the right one.

There seems to be more of a sequential cohesion between:

First, they form the blanket

Then they/the blanket will be holding radiation and warming.

If u agree on that, you could just say it's an instance of ellipsis and the missing part is 'then (the blanket/it) (will be/is)'
TakaSo you don't think this makes sence?

Holding outgoing radiation for a while and warming the surface, an arryay of molecules form a kind of blanket.

Maybe, the sequence is not altered. It's just that in this kind of scientific texts it's kinda messy to emphasize (that is why holding and warming are now fronted, for emphasis, I guess)

TakaSo you don't think this makes sence?
Holding outgoing radiation for a while and warming the surface, an arryay of molecules form a kind of blanket.

Yes it does. In this case, the 2 participle phrases are modifying the subject of the sentence, the noun "array".
In the previous example, these phrases modified the object noun "blanket". But the "array of molecules" is the blanket. So the meaning has not changed.
Note: The subject of the sentence is "array" which is a singular noun. So the verb has to be written "forms" not "form".
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Planet HopperThat's if you can answer the question how do they form the blanket? (by) holding and warming. Not sure that is the right one.

There seems to be more of a sequential cohesion ...

If I'm not mistaken, reduced adverb phrases are quite often used to imply sequence.
(Example)
He came up to her, asking her to dance with him.
AlpheccaStarsNote: The subject of the sentence is "array" which is a singular noun. So the verb has to be written "forms" not "form".

I think 'an array of...' here means 'many (kinds of)...'

An "array" is just an arrangement of items in a regular pattern. It does not imply different kinds of molecules are making up the array.

Frequently we arrange numbers in arrays of rows and columns. The spreadsheet (or table) is a two-dimensional array. One entry (intersection of one row and one column) is a cell.

In both math and physics, arrays have dimensions. In physics, an array of zero dimensions is a point, an array of two dimesions is a line, and three dimensions is physical space. Four dimensions is space + time.
AlpheccaStars An "array" is just an arrangement of items in a regular pattern. It does not imply different kinds of molecules are making up the array.

For your information, here is the original:
An arryay of molecules (the best known is carbon dioxide) form a kind of blanket, holding outgoing radiation for a while and warming the surface.
It really seems to be about the kinds of molecules...
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