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Public elementary and secondary schools are a protected monopoly, owned and operated by government and enjoying captive clienteless.

Grammatically, how do you classify these 'owned', 'operated' and 'enjoying'?

(1) Part of a series of complements; the same complement as 'a protected monopoly'. That is:

Public elementary and secondary schools are X1, X2, and X3
(X1=
a protected monopoly; X2=owned and operated by government; X3=enjoying captive clienteless)


(2) Participial construction.

e.g. Someone was standing by the gate, looking at me.

(3) They all refer to 'a protected monopoly'.


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I don't hear it as the first choice, probably because of the lack of parallelism in that view of the sentence.

Since you have an equative sentence here, wouldn't the participles refer equally to both sides of the equation?

An X is a Y, owned by Z. ("owned by Z" is non-restrictive, so I don't think it's a matter of X being "a Y owned by Z".)

X is owned by Z and (because X is a Y) Y is owned by Z.

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CalifJimI don't hear it as the first choice, probably because of the lack of parallelism in that view of the sentence.

Since you have an equative sentence here, wouldn't the participles refer equally to both sides of the equation?

An X is a Y, owned by Z. ("owned by Z" is non-restrictive, so I don't think it's a matter of X being "a Y owned by Z".)

X is owned by Z and (because X is a Y) Y is owned by Z.


Hmm...so, if anything, you think it's close to (2)? Do you think those particiaples are just added to the main clause, for emphatic effect or something?
Yes. Close to (2). I suppose you could say "added .. for emphatic effect", but I would phrase it a little differently. I would say the participles (and accompanying words) are added to elaborate more fully what the author meant by saying that public schools are a protected monopoly. The added material is explanatory in nature.

CJ
Elaboration! That's much better!

Thank you, CJ!
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TakaPublic elementary and secondary schools are a protected monopoly, owned and operated by government and enjoying captive clienteless.
Dear, helpers!

Any difference between "..... government and enjoying captive clienteless" and "..... government, enjoying captive clientless"?

Thanks in advnace