+0
Read the short passage and answer:

The research also found that TV viewing______.
A. had a little effect on a child's language development
B. affected a child's language development more negatively than positively

The suggested answer is A. But I think B is correct. What do you think?

AIDS researchers say they still have much work to do on a vaccine against H.I.V. But the first reports of some success have raised hopes. Scientists say an experimental vaccine reduced the risk of infection in humans by thirty-one percent and was safe.

The study was designed to test for two abilities. One was the ability of the vaccine to prevent H.I.V. infections. The other was its ability to reduce the amount of virus in the blood of people who became infected during the study.

Volunteers received vaccinations over a period of six months and were tested for H.I.V. for an additional three years. The study began in two thousand three. It was the largest AIDS vaccine trial yet. It involved more than sixteen thousand adults in Thailand.

Half received the vaccine. The other half received a placebo, an inactive substance. The volunteers did not know which they were getting.

Seventy-four people in the placebo group became infected during the study. The researchers say that was compared with only fifty-one of those who received the vaccine.

Doctor Supachai Rerks-Ngarm, who led the study for the Thai Ministry of Public Health, called it a scientific breakthrough.

The Surgeon General of the United States Army sponsored the study and released the final results last week.

The National Institutes of Health also took part. Doctor Anthony Fauci at N.I.H. called the findings an important step forward. He said it represents the first time an investigational H.I.V. vaccine has shown some ability to prevent infection. But he also said additional research is needed to better understand how the vaccine reduced the risk in those individuals.

The vaccine did not lower the amount of virus in the blood of volunteers who became infected during the study.

The study was based on versions of H.I.V. commonly found in Thailand. The volunteers received a combination of two vaccines. The first, or prime, vaccine came from the Sanofi Pasteur company. The second, or booster, vaccine was developed by VaxGen. The nonprofit group Global Solutions for Infectious Diseases now has rights to it.

Neither vaccine had been successful by itself when tested earlier. More detailed results of the study are expected to be presented at an AIDS vaccine conference in Paris next month.
+0
Sorry to say but that paragraph has nothing to do with the question.
Comments  
Site Hint: Check out our list of pronunciation videos.
Sorry, I input the passage wrongly. The passage is as follows:

MONDAY, June 29 (HealthDay News) -- If you want to help children develop language and speech skills, UCLA researchers say, listening to what they have to say is just as important as talking to them.



The effect of a conversation between a child and an adult is about six times as great as the effect of adult speech input alone, the researchers found. The results of their study appear in the July issue of Pediatrics.



"Adults speaking to children helps language develop, but what matters much more is the interaction," said the study's lead author, Frederick Zimmerman, an associate professor in the school of public health at the University of California, Los Angeles. "The child speaking is a big part of what drives language development. The more the child speaks, it reinforces their knowledge."



The researchers also found that TV viewing didn't have much of an effect -- positively or negatively -- as long as it wasn't displacing conversations between an adult and a child.



That, however, may be exactly what's happening in many homes. A study in the June issue of Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine found that for every additional hour of television exposure, young children heard 770 fewer words from an adult. And, infants watching TV made fewer vocalizations when adults spoke to them.



The UCLA study included 275 families with children between 2 months and 48 months old. They represented a variety of incomes and education. Most families were white, with 3 percent of the families black, 8 percent Hispanic and 7 percent another non-white ethnicity.



On a randomly chosen day, parents recorded their child's entire day, from wake-up until the child went to sleep. Each family provided about five full-day recordings during the six-month study. In addition, 71 of the families continued the study for 18 months longer.



The researchers found that, in an average day, children hear about 13,000 spoken words from adults and participated in about 400 adult-child conversations a day.



Assessed separately, factors positively associated with language development included each additional 100 conversations a day and each 1,000 word increase in the number of words spoken by adults and heard by children. When looked at alone, TV was negatively associated with language development.



But, when the three factors were analyzed together, the only one that stood out was conversation between adults and children.



"The more a child speaks and interacts with an adult, the better idea a parent has about where the child is," Zimmerman said. "Although it's mostly done unconsciously, parents will provide feedback and correct mistakes. They'll also tailor their speech to the child."



"This study supports what we recommend to families," said Maxine Orringer, a speech-language pathologist at Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh. "When there's conversation, you get practice communicating. The child can make a mistake, and that helps parents understand what the child's perception is, and it can help them correct those mistakes," Orringer explained.



"Parents can give a child words by talking to them about what they're doing, such as, 'I'm putting on your pajamas now.' But give your child the opportunity to talk, hopefully without the rest of the noise in the environment," she added. "If parents can carve out some conversation time -- maybe at bath time or at dinnertime -- that's a wonderful thing."



Adults should remember that "sometimes it's quicker and easier just to tell children what to do, and it's difficult to slow down, but that's what's important for language development," Zimmerman added.



"Conversation should always be a two-way street," he said.
I agree that A is correct. B would be correct if you added the following

The research also found that TV viewing affected a child's language development more negatively than positively only when/if it displaced conversations between an adult and a child.
However, I feel A is not correct. I think the paragraph:

The researchers also found that TV viewing didn't have much of an effect -- positively or negatively -- as long as it wasn't displacing conversations between an adult and a child.

means:

The research also found that TV viewing had little (rather than "a little") effect on a child's language development.

1)Do you think so?

2)How do you interpret "didn't have much of "? By the way, can we substitute "as long as" with "if" here?

3)I don't quite understand "displace conversations between an adult and a child". Can you paraphrase it for me?

Thanks.
Teachers: We supply a list of EFL job vacancies
1) Yes, I still think that "A" is correct but I agree that it should be "little" in that sentence, not "a little".

2) Yes, I agree that in the context "little" makes more sense. One can argue that "didn't have much of an effect" does mean "some effect" rather than little effect, but given the context, "little" simply makes more sense to me.

3) It simply means that "the time spent in conversations between an adult and a child" is now replaced by the time spent watching TV"