What is hypercorrection in linguistics?

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Hypercorrection is overcorrection. It's when you realize you have been doing something wrong (linguistically) and you make an effort to correct it and "speak correctly". But in the process you haven't really understood the rule and begin to apply it willy-nilly all over the place even when you shouldn't be applying it!

An example is the use of "whom" when "who" is the correct form, as in 'Whom do you think will be invited to the party this weekend?'

Another example is seen in learners of English. They may learn a particular irregular verb pattern but apply it to the wrong verbs. "I have boughten a lot of books today" or "I wrang out the wet rag" are examples.

Just for fun, I have included some more examples of hypercorrection from Webster's Dictonary of English Usage:

-... the most irritating thing to we military people.

-... designed for you and I.

-... impertinent people, which, between you an I Jack, are so numerous.

-... there's an awfully lot of methane and ammonia in the universe.

-I once had a dentist who never failed to say "open widely."

-... because he tested positively for steroids.

-All three lamps are pure brass, and not brass plated, as some similar looking products.

-He asked if he were apprehensive. [No reason for the subjunctive.]
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these are all good examples of hypercorrection.
Hypercorrection [From Greek hyper- (over) + correction.] is

-a construction or pronunciation produced by mistaken analogy with standard usage out of a desire to be correct, as in the substitution of I for me in on behalf of my parents and I.

-the production of such a construction or pronunciation.

- a grammatical, usage or pronuciation mistake made by `correcting'
something that's right to begin with. For example, use of the word whom in
"Whom shall I say is calling?"

- In grammar and usage, hypercorrections are the new mistakes we make in the effort to avoid old ones.

Hope that this will help you.
As someone whose name begins with "H" a constant source of irritation! When spelling my name over the 'phone to hear "Harry" (for example) repeated as HAITCH> A< R< R< Y.
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I don't think "between you and I" can be blamed entirely on hypercorrection. It's been attested since at least 1596, before English grammar was taught in school. Nowadays it might be partially due to hypercorrection, but I think something else is going on, namely something to do with how conjoined pronouns interact with case.

The same with "whom" in subject position, which is found in Shakespeare, before English grammar was formally taught.
I believe that "wrong" usage of "whom" and certain pronouns in the "wrong" positions is a natural consequence of there being no actual strong pattern to their usage outside of grammar books.

"Haitch" is seen as a kind of low-level thing to say, isn't it?

Other examples posted here all seem more like examples of buggering up, rather than hypercorrection. Perhaps the "awfully" example might be an exception, but the others don't make me think "Hmmm, sounds sorta posh" particularly.
I know that "as if" always requires the subjunctive in Spanish (como si), and I believe it would be correct to say "He asked as if he were apprehensive." The state of 'being apprehensive' is not a temporally concrete statement of fact. In other words, the subject's apprehensiveness is not claimed to happen in neither the present, past, nor future.
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