Hello.

I have just finished my report on artificial satellites. I would be so grateful if someone (I prefer to whom English is the first language but everyone is welcome) could look through my report and correct it if there are any mistakes. When writing this I tried to make my English sound as good as possible. It is really a challenge sometimes to write a good text in English for a non-native speaker even if you know English very well because not only must you find appropriate collocations but you also have to keep thinking about the syntax all the time to make your English sound natural.

SO, here it goes.

a glimpse inside

Communication has always been one of the most important aspects of our every-day life (the other being activity). Together they form the essence of our civilization. Even though many of us would consider human communication the outcome of modern technology, it actually [cuts deeper]. It is vital for an individual and the society as a whole to survive.

The concept of communication is two-fold: it extends both in space and time. In time, the human society has developed and perfected ways to convey knowledge and share experience, which is of key importance in cooperating. The intrinsic means of passing information [through/via] the language and gestures, the only forms of communication for tens of thoudands of years, is no longer considered as such. At first slowly, and now increasingly rapidly, man‘s [brilliant/sharp/enquiring] mind has been manifest in a chain of never-ending technological advancements. Aside from the radio, the television and the Internet, the past century has seen the beginning of the new space exploration era – one of the most remarkable achievements of the twentieth century. The main tool for space exploration, the artificial satellite brought new possibilities (for example, communicating over great distances, transmitting data of highest quality, to name just a few) with it.

At the moment, there are hundreds of active artificial satellites orbiting the Earth. They are used for various purposes such as navigation, map making, observation of distant heavenly objects, telecommunications and many others. Telecommunications is easily one of the more important fields of artificial satellite application since many scientific and domestic processes operate on the basis of it.

the way it all works

The very idea of a man-made object orbiting round the Earth might leave many speechless in wonder how it is possible to keep an artificial satellite from falling down to the surface of the planet. The surprisingly simple answer to this question lies in the shape of the Earth. Here is the basic outline how it all works.

We all know that the Earth is round. There exists a certain ratio that governs the shape of the Earth‘s curvature, i.e. the Earth‘s surface curves downwards five metres for each 8 000 metres travelled horizontally. Therefore, a satellite must travel 8 000 metres before it can fall 5 metres to the Earth. Moving at such speed the satellite will never actually fall into the Earth despite the fact that it continually falls towards it.

/A picture/

This picture depicts Earth‘s curvature along with the concept of an

artificial satellite. Earth‘s surface drops with each step taken and if you

are fast enough, you can overcome Eath‘s gravity.

At any moment, satellite‘s velocity and acceleration caused by Earth‘s gravitational effects add to give a net velocity tangent to Earth‘s surface, which guarantees that at any moment it matches Earth‘s curvature and the satellite never comes closer to the surface in spite of constantly falling.

This lower speed limit required to orbit around Earth is known as circular velocity. We have concluded that there is absolutely nothing surprising in satellites not falling down and that this is predetermined by the shape of our planet. Nevertheless, physicists would often invoke the concept of centrifugal force to explain why satellites keep orbiting Earth. They also make use of the following equations to obtain the value of circular velocity:

/several equations/

At this speed, atmospheric friction would burn a piece of iron to powder. To avoid this atmospheric friction, satellites are launched to altitudes of 150 kilometers or more where almost there is no atmosphere and air drag. The high altitude is not beyond Earth's gravity.

When an artificial satellite is launched, it is first taken high above the Earth's surface (so that there is no air drag or friction) by a powerful rocket; then the satellite is given a horizontal push (or velocity). The velocity has to be high enough for the satellite to follow a trajectory that curves along with the Earth.

applications of satellites

There are many types of satellites in use today. They are classified as either communications or remote-sensing satellites.

Stallites that fall into the category of COMSATS (short for communications satellites) act as relay stations in space. What they do is essentially catch a signal or a message in the form of high frequency radio waves from a gound-based transmitter (called the uplink) and direct it to a desired point on Earth (the satellite itself is called the transponder). The signals or messages can

be telephone calls, TV pictures or Internet connections. Some are used to send out radio and TV signals to domestic consumers. It is this kind of satellites that make telecommunications possible, contributing to their importance.

The most common type of communications satellites, particularly the broadcast satellites like AfriStar, Intelsat, PanAmSat, Eutelsat and ASTRA, are in geosynchronous orbit (from geo = Earth + synchronous = happening at the same time). That means that the satellite always stays over one spot on Earth. It does this by placing the satellite in a position 35,786 km out in space perpendicularly above the equator. The imaginary ring around the Earth where all geostationary satellites are stationed for their lifetime is called the Clarke belt. The consequence of this type of fixed location is that Earth stations (receive as well as transmit stations on the Earth surface) can almost be permanently fixed because they are constantly pointed to the same point in the sky where they 'see' the satellite.

Remote-sensing satellites, on the other hand, are devices that study the surface of the Earth. They use powerful cameras to probe the planet. After having gathered valuable data concerning Eath‘s plant cover, chemical composition, surface water and many other they transmit it to resreachers, governments and businesses. However, their application is not limited to

environmentalists.

Weather satellites record weather patterns around the world. Meteorologists use the information collected to monitor weather and climate patterns to make accurate weather forecasts.

Many sophisticated scientific experiments and observations are only possible in orbit. Projects such as SOHO enable in-depth scans of the Sun, its atmosphere and corona. Hubble is another good example of what a satellite brought into orbit is capable of.

Global Positioning System (GPS) also relies heavily on the use of satellites. Originally developed by the military, it is now being successfully used as a civilian technology for navigation almost everywhere on Earth.

the future of satellites

The satellites have been circling our planet for about half a century. Their designs and technology used in them have come a long way since then. Nevertheless, there is still a lot of potential in satellites which hopefully will be [realizatas] in the near future. Below are some brief descriptions of possible future applications.



A ‘Swarm‘ of Satellites



The future of satellites might be groups of small satellites that work together instead of a single large one. With such groups, researchers can add to a project’s scale by sending additional satellites with the same goal and budgets can be reduced because the chance of failure drops if one satellite breaks and an automatic backup remains in flight. A project called FASTRAC is to demonstrate flying formation satellites, which are much smaller than normal and fly in synch with each other sometime in 2006.

Advances in Medicine

Satellite technology opens up new possibilities for medical diagnosis and treatment. Patients in isolated areas can access medical experts through video, telephone, and data links. Doctors can monitor patients’ vital signs, read laboratory results, and view radiology films from their homes. Currently, several innovative companies are using telemedicine technology to provide home healthcare services. In the future, satellites could transmit a patient’s medical database to a specialist anywhere in the world.

Satellite Imagery in the Future

In some years you will find youself accessing a global information database that is built on top of satellite imagery of the world. So if you want to go anywhere in the world you will be able to point and click and you will be able to view it, find information about it. If you need to know how to get from the airport to the building or where you might stay that is close to the location you want to go to – all that will be available through the Internet. There will be a global information database of what we call spatial data that is geo-referenced to the Earth's surface, so you will basically have an image map of the world.

Turning Science Fiction into Reality

There are plans for [orbitary] solar power plants. These power plants could convert solar energy to electricity and direct it to Earth using special microwave antennae. Solar batteries is not a surprise to us even today but just try to imagine how many times would a solar power plant brought into orbit with its massive solar batteries be more effective!

Or what about a weather control machine? The opportunities are endless…

closing remarks

An artificial satellite is perhaps man‘s most impressive invention which still has many latent fields of application. From broadcasting to medicine, from scanning the surface of the planet to power generation — these are just a few areas where satellites are applied. Such heavy use is sure to make this kind of invention important for years to come.

Well, this was supposed to be the end. I'd appreciate it if you post your thoughts, impressions or advice on how to make this a project a better piece of writing.

Thanks a lot
This is quite a long article for us to tackle here. I'll have a go at the start and perhaps you an apply the lessons to the whole thing. Overall it seems that you have a good grasp of English. Watch out for putting determiners (the) in inappropriate places.

Communication has always been one of the most important aspects of our every-day life (the other being activity)not sure what you mean by activity. Together they form the essence of our civilization. Even though many of us would consider human communication the outcome of modern technology, it actually [cuts deeper]goes deeper than that.. It is vital for an individual and the society as a whole to survive.

The concept of communication is two-fold: it extends both in space and time. In time, delete society has developed and perfected ways to convey knowledge and share experience, which is of key importance in cooperating. The intrinsic means of passing information through (delete the) language and gestures, the only forms of communication for tens of thoudands of years, is no longer considered as such (as what?). At first slowly, and now increasingly rapidly, man‘s [brilliant/sharp/enquiring] (any of those) mind has been manifest in a chain of never-ending technological advancements. Aside from radio, television (delete thes) and the Internet, the past century has seen the beginning of the new space exploration era – one of the most remarkable achievements of the twentieth century (this last part sounds odd combined with 'the past century'. Style problem you may wish to re-phrase). The main tool for space exploration, the artificial satellite, brought new possibilities (for example, communicating over great distances, transmitting data of highest quality, to name just a few) with it. incorporate the bracketed list into the sentence.

At the moment, there are hundreds of active artificial satellites orbiting the Earth. They are used for various purposes such as navigation, map making, observation of distant heavenly objects, telecommunications and many others. Telecommunications is easily one of the more important fields of artificial satellite application since many scientific and domestic processes operate on the basis of it.
Thank you, Nona.

I have corrected the mistakes you pointed out and tried to find other mistakes of the same type in the rest of the text. I thought that perhaps it would be more convenient to divide the text into smaller parts. I distrust (<-am I using this word in the right place?) the most the parts that I have written myself. These are the introduction (A Glimpse Inside), certain parts of the main body (The Way It All Works), and the conclusion (Closing Remarks). The other parts are more or less copied from the Internet, rephrased etc. I thought I'd highlight words or phrases I still don't trust so that it'll be easier for others to help me or give some advice.
Students: We have free audio pronunciation exercises.
The very idea of a man-made object orbiting round the Earth might leave many speechless in wonder how it is possible to keep an artificial satellite from falling down to the surface of the planet. The surprisingly simple answer to this question lies in the shape of the Earth.

We all know that the Earth is round. There exists a certain ratio that governs the shape of the Earth‘s curvature, i.e. the Earth‘s surface curves downwards five metres for each 8 000 metres travelled horizontally. Therefore, a satellite must travel 8 000 metres before it can fall 5 metres to the Earth. Moving at such a speed the satellite will never actually fall into the Earth despite the fact that it continually falls towards it.

/Caption: (the?) Earth‘s surface drops with each step taken and if you are fast enough, you can overcome (the?) Earth‘s gravity/

We have concluded that there is absolutely nothing surprising in satellites not falling down and that this is predetermined by the shape of our planet. Nevertheless, physicists would often invoke the concept of centrifugal force to explain why satellites keep orbiting (the?) Earth. Also, they make use of the following equations to obtain the value of circular velocity.

It is this kind of satellites that make telecommunications possible, contributing to their importance.

After having gathered valuable data concerning (the?) Earth‘s plant cover, chemical composition, surface water and many other they transmit it to resreachers, governments and businesses. However, their application is not limited to (or limited with? which of these is used?both?) environmentalists.

The satellites have been circling our planet for about half a century. Their designs and technology used in them have come a long way since then. Nevertheless, there is still a lot of potential in satellites which hopefully will be (put (in)to pratice/use?tapped into?exploited?realized?) in the near future. Below are some brief descriptions of possible future applications...

Satellite technology opens up new possibilities for medical diagnosis and treatment.

In a few years‘ time, you might find youself accessing a global information database that is built on top of satellite imagery of the world. Suppose you want to go somewhere in the world, you point and click and you are able to view it and find information about it. If you need to know how to get from the airport to the building or where you might stay that is close to the location you want to go to – all that will be available through the Internet. There will be a global information database of what we call spatial data that is geo-referenced to the Earth's surface, so you will basically have an image map of the world.

There are plans for (orbitary?orbital?orbit?) solar power plants. These power plants could (referring to a possibility in the future) convert solar energy to electricity and direct it to Earth using special microwave antennae. Solar batteries are not a surprise to us even today but just try to imagine how many times would a solar power plant brought into orbit with its massive solar batteries be more effective!

Or what about a weather control machine? The opportunities are endless…

---------

Well, I believe that's about all. Green indicates that I suspect a vocabulary problem, black and violet - grammar and style, correspondingly. I'm having really hard time with determiners, as you might have noticed. Also, is it Communications Satellites or Communication Satellites? I think the second is AmE, while the first is BrE. The second sounds more natural to me but I was taught BrE, so I prefer it that way. Still, I might be confusing things, perhaps only one of these two is correct.

Thank you
Rokas2The very idea of a man-made object orbiting round the Earth might leave many speechless in wonder how it is possible to keep an artificial satellite from falling down to the surface of the planet. The surprisingly simple answer to this question lies in the shape of the Earth.We all know that the Earth is round. There exists a certain ratio that governs the shape of the Earth‘s curvature, i.e. the Earth‘s surface curves downwards five metres for each 8 000 metres travelled horizontally. Therefore, a satellite must travel 8 000 metres before it can fall 5 metres to the Earth. Moving at such a speed the satellite will never actually fall into the Earth despite the fact that it continually falls towards it./Caption: (the?) Earth‘s surface drops with each step taken and if you are fast enough, you can overcome (the?) Earth‘s gravity/We have concluded that there is absolutely nothing surprising in satellites not falling down and that this is predetermined by the shape of our planet. Nevertheless, physicists would often invoke the concept of centrifugal force to explain why satellites keep orbiting (the?) Earth. Also, they make use of the following equations to obtain the value of circular velocity.It is this kind of satellites that make telecommunications possible, contributing to their importance.After having gathered valuable data concerning (the?) Earth‘s plant cover, chemical composition, surface water and many other they transmit it to resreachers, governments and businesses. However, their application is not limited to (or limited with? which of these is used?both?) environmentalists.The satellites have been circling our planet for about half a century. Their designs and technology used in them have come a long way since then. Nevertheless, there is still a lot of potential in satellites which hopefully will be (put (in)to pratice/use?tapped into?exploited?realized?) in the near future. Below are some brief descriptions of possible future applications...Satellite technology opens up new possibilities for medical diagnosis and treatment. In a few years‘ time, you might find youself accessing a global information database that is built on top of satellite imagery of the world. Suppose you want to go somewhere in the world, you point and click and you are able to view it and find information about it. If you need to know how to get from the airport to the building or where you might stay that is close to the location you want to go to – all that will be available through the Internet. There will be a global information database of what we call spatial data that is geo-referenced to the Earth's surface, so you will basically have an image map of the world. There are plans for (orbitary?orbital?orbit?) solar power plants. These power plants could (referring to a possibility in the future) convert solar energy to electricity and direct it to Earth using special microwave antennae. Solar batteries are not a surprise to us even today but just try to imagine how many times would a solar power plant brought into orbit with its massive solar batteries be more effective!Or what about a weather control machine? The opportunities are endless…---------Well, I believe that's about all. Green indicates that I suspect a vocabulary problem, black and violet - grammar and style, correspondingly. I'm having really hard time with determiners, as you might have noticed. Also, is it Communications Satellites or Communication Satellites? I think the second is AmE, while the first is BrE. The second sounds more natural to me but I was taught BrE, so I prefer it that way. Still, I might be confusing things, perhaps only one of these two is correct.Thank you
Its not always necessary to write 'the' before proper nowns. 'The Earth' is not required, 'Earth' is equally correct. One always mustn't specify you know, i mean there's only one Earth so its pretty clear. Just like you dont always have to say 'the Sun' (though the first alphabet has to be in capital).
Just keep this in mind.