Can anyone check for grammatical error and give comment

A Comparison between Christianity and Medicine
Throughout history, Christianity and medicine have played a significant role in people’s life. Both are widely recognized practices in the world today. “Religion and medicine share a single aim, that of making whole. It is no accident that ‘holiness’ and ‘healing’ have a common etymology, rooted in the idea of wholeness: as do salvation and the salutary, cure, care, and charity” (Bynum and Porter, p 1449).
Christianity and medicine are similar in some ways yet different on the teachings.

In ancient times, health and diseases were in the hand of the gods. When people were prone to sickness, they sought out to a priest or magician to ask the gods to cure them. This tradition was changed when a Greek physician by the name of Hippocrates took health and diseases out of the gods’ hand and made it as a scientific explanation (Adler p 8). It was then that the term medicine was established. Medicine refers to the treatment of diseases. Hippocrates and his followers believed that diseases occurred when there is a change in the body that upset the normal balance of competing forces. These forces revealed themselves in the form of four basic fluids or humors: blood, phlegm, yellow pile, and black pile. From this belief, they developed a humoral theory which explains many of their observations. They say that the cold and wetness of winter slanted the balance in prone people in the direction of phlegm, causing colds, coughs, and lung problems (Adler 11).

During that time, doctors treated people based on the humoral theory and the Hippocratic belief. In the 19th century Louis Pasteur developed a germ theory that brought a change to the view of diseases forever. This theory stated that, “Germs cause disease” (Adler 109). From this theory, physicians began to think that diseases were caused by microorganisms (Adler 11).
Roy Porter stated that “Medicine owed its foundation as a science to Hippocrates and his successors, and such founding fathers were surely to be praised” (Porter p 15). “Today Hippocrates is known as the ‘Father of Medicine’” (Devley). People that practice medicine are given the title of doctor or physician. The title physician was first given to an Egyptian by the name of Sekhet’senannach, who cured a pharaoh’s malady in 3000 B.C (Bruno p 365).

According to John Bowker, “Christianity began in the Paschal Mystery, which is the life, ministry, death, resurrection, and ascension of Jesus. According to the Christian belief, Jesus was a Jewish man who is believed to be the Son of God.” (Bowker p 228). A Christian, however, is a disciple of Jesus. McGrath depicts that Christians refer to Jesus as the Messiah, the Lord, the Son of God, the Son of Man and God (McGrath p 351-354). During Jesus’ time of ministry, he taught people by his actions and his words. He also played a role of physician because he used his power to cured people and cast out demons. Christians believe that Jesus was sent by God to save the people from sin.

Both practices of medicine, religious or scientific, have a sacred text, however, the points depict differently in each. Christians use the Bible which contains the words of God. The Bible was written with the helped of the Holy Spirit and it was divided into two parts, the New Testament and the Old Testament. The author of the New Testament believes that God was acting and speaking in Jesus through his works and forgiveness of sins (Bowker p 228). Christians lived according to the Bible because the bible is the foundation of Christianity. The Bible consisted of 72 books.

Instead of using the Bible, physicians use the Hippocratic Corpus which contains related information about medicine. The Hippocratic Corpus was formed after the death of Hippocrates. The Hippocratic Corpus consists of 70 related medical works of Hippocrates and his followers (Adler 9). The Hippocratic Corpus stated,
“The cardinal concept in the Hippocratic Corpus was that health was
equilibrium and illness an upset, an explanation probably owing much
to pre-Socratic attempts to understand the stability yet changeability of
nature. On Regimen pictured the body as being in perpetual flux: health was a matter of keeping it within bounds. More commonly notably in on the Nature of Man, the body was viewed as stable until illness subverted it. Imbalance would produce illness if it resulted in undue concentration of fluid in a particular body zone” (Porter p 56).
Sherwin B. Nuland stated that, “Both the Bible and the Hippocratic Corpus deal with man’s relationship to man and to another power outside himself. In the Greek writings, however, that power is nature; God an other forces that can be seen only with supernatural sight are excluded” ( Nuland p 4).

Medicine and Christianity have its own symbol. Christian uses the cross as its symbol to represent Christianity. According to John Bowker, “The cross demonstrated the truth of Jesus claiming that he was the son of man, the one who must die like all other” (Bowker p 239). All of the Christian churches around the world use this symbol in front of the church and inside the church to represent Christianity.
Unlike Christians, physicians started using the snake curled on a staff as its symbol since 1910 (Wolinsky and Brune p xv). According to Roy Porter, “Since ancient times, the serpent has symbolized medicine. It is not the serpent of the Judeo-Christian culture, which viewed snakes as a symbol of evil, but of ancient Greeks and Roman. To them, the snake’s ability to shed its skin was a powerful image for renewal and healing.”(Wolinsky and Brune xv).

Physicians sometimes use other symbol that frequently is confused with the snake on the staff. It is called the caduceus, this symbol has two snake with wings curled around the short olive tree. Both symbols are often looked as if they are similar. Physician uses both of this symbol interchangeably, either on their prescription pads, letter heads, or as a logo in front of their office building (Wolinsky and Brune p xvi-xvii).
Today, physicians are like priests, before they begin to practice, they must take a vow or an oath. They have to take an oath called The Hippocratic Oath before they can practice medicine. The Hippocratic Oath stated,

“I swear by Apollo the healer, by Aesculapius, by Health and all the powers of healing, and call to witness all the gods and goddesses that I may keep this Oath and Promise to the best of my ability and judgment.
I will pay the same respect to my master in the Science as to my parents and share my life with him and pay all my debts to him. I will regard his sons as my brothers and teach them the Science, if they desire to learn it, without fee or contract. I will hand on precepts, lectures and all other learning to my sons, to those of my master and to those pupils duly apprenticed and sworn, and to none other.
I will use my power to help the sick to the best of my ability and judgment; I will abstain from harming or wronging any man by it. I will not give a fatal draught to anyone if I am asked, nor will I suggest any such thing. Neither will I give a woman means to procure an abortion.
I will be chaste and religious in my life and in my practice.
I will not cut, even for the stone, but I will leave such procedures to the practitioners of that craft.
Whenever I go into a house, I will go to help the sick and even with the intention of doing harm or injury. I will not abuse my position to indulge in sexual contacts with the bodies of women or of men, whether they be freemen or slaves.
Whatever I see or hear, professionally or privately, which ought not to be divulged, I will keep secret and tell no one.
If, therefore, I observe this Oath and do not violate it, may I prosper both in my life and in my profession, earning good repute among all men for all time. If I transgress and forswear this Oath, may my lot be otherwise” (Porter p 30-31).

This oath was adopted by a Pythagorean physician in the fourth century (Brennan p 31). According to Porter, “The Oath foreshadowed the western paradigm of a profession (one who professes an oath) as a morally self regulating discipline among those sharing craft knowledge and committed to serving other” (Porter p 62). This oath prevents physician from doing harm and injustice to the patients.
Physicians are a servant of life. Physicians have to learn how to communicate effectively because sometimes patients are too shy to tell the physician of their problems, therefore physicians have to dig the problem out of the patient. Physicians and patients must collaborate together to work out the problem, but under the physician’s leadership (Brenne p 51). Physicians use their specialized knowledge to treat patients. Physicians have an obligation to preserve both the physical and emotional well-being of the patient (Dunstan and Shinebourne p 224).

The American Medical Association developed the Code of ethics. The Code of ethics stated that physicians have a sacred duty to avoid all things that have a tendency to discourage the patient and to depress his spirits (Dunstan and Shinebourne p 225). Physicians are following in Jesus’ footsteps because during Jesus’ time of ministry he cured many people, such as the blind, the leprosy and he also cast out demons. Carla Dionne says, "Patients often feel their doctors are God. This is someone they have seen and trusted, perhaps delivered their children" (Jost Fischmen).

In the early church, women were not allowed to be a disciple of Jesus. But it was changed when Mary Magdella became the first disciple of Jesus. Similar to Christianity, women were barred from entering universities and practice medicine. But Dr. James Barry, the first female doctor in Canada brought up a proposal to allow women to enter the universities and practice medicine in the 19th century (Phillips). With the helped of Dr. James Barry proposal, a vast number of females entered the health profession everyday.

Today, physicians dress up in a certain uniform when they perform their duty. In contrast to priests, they have to wear a vestment when they perform mass in the Churches or Cathedrals. Cathedrals and churches were built to worship God and for the use of liturgy (Bowker p 278). But instead of wearing vestments, physicians wear a white coat when they are at work. Physicians work at the hospital, clinic and other health care services. The symbol for a hospital is an H. Most of the time, the H appears on the streets and highways to show travelers where the hospital is. The first hospital in North America was built in 1524 by Cortez (Encyclopedia). The hospital is “an institution that is built, staffed, and equipped for the diagnosis of disease; for the treatment, both medical and surgical, of the sick and the injured; and for their housing during this process” (Encyclopedia).

During examination of the patient, the physician takes the patient’s history, or “confession” (Elks). This is like when a priest hears confession of a sinner in the Church. After hearing the confession, the priest cannot exchange any of the information with anyone. While the doctor gets other doctors to acknowledge the patient’s health history or problems. Physicians do this to prevent from prescribing the wrong medications and to make sure that the patient has a certain disease. Physicians usually use the stethoscope and other instruments to examine the patients. After knowing the results of the patient, the physician suggests the patient to take certain actions, such as dieting and exercising (Elks).

In the 17th century, medical practices were separated into 3 distinct groups: physician, surgeon, and the apothecaries (MedlinePlus). “Physicians were viewed as elite and usually held a university degree. Surgeons, in contrast, were typically apprenticed and hospital trained and often served the dual role of barber-surgeon. Apothecaries also learned their roles prescribing, making, and selling medicines, through apprenticeships and sometimes within hospitals” (MedlinePlus).

Within medicine, there are two kinds of physicians in the United States, Doctor of Medicine and Doctor of Osteopathy. Both treat people with medicines, surgery, and other method of treating diseases. But Doctor of Osteopathy is an expertise at treating muscle, ligament, bones, and joints (Encarta). In order for students to become a doctor, they have to spend 4 years of studying at a college or university. After four years of studying, they have to attend medical school in order to earn a Doctor of Medicine (M.D) degree. After medical school, they must do a residency for two more years before they can get a license to practice medicine.

Physicians can also work in the pharmaceutical industry. In the pharmaceutical industry, there are at least two sections that communicate with the physician: the drug research section and the drug promotion section. Physicians usually communicate with the pharmaceutical industry face to face (Breen). The physician prescribes the medication and the pharmacist provides the medication to the patient. Physicians and pharmacists are working as a team to treat people.

“Medicine needs Christianity because Christianity provides a world view which gives human beings dignity as special creations of God and asserts that our actions in this life are of eternal significance (Saunders)”. Christian and physician are working for the same cause which is saving life and helping others. Physicians work to satisfy patients while Christians work to satisfy God. Physicians save people from disease while Christianity saves people from sin. The church teaches Christian how to live according to the 10 Commandment and the Bible. While Medical school teaches students how to save lives and help to relieve the pain from other.
Hi,

I started reading quickly and found a few errors. But I only got half way through. Unfortunately this stuff doesn't interest me and we don't provide a proof reading service. You seem to have a strong command of English, so I think you should do well. Let it sit for a couple of days then proof read it yourself or have a friend it.

MountainHiker

A Comparison between Christianity and Medicine

Throughout history, Christianity and medicine have played a significant role in people’s li[ve]s. Both are widely recognized practices in the world today.[?? roles or practices or what?] “Religion and medicine share a single aim, that of making whole. It is no accident that ‘holiness’ and ‘healing’ have a common etymology, rooted in the idea of wholeness: as do salvation and the salutary, cure, care, and charity” (Bynum and Porter, p 1449).

Christianity and medicine are similar in some ways yet different on the teachings.

In ancient times, health and diseases were in the hand of the gods. When people were prone to sickness, they sought out to a priest or magician to ask the gods to cure them. This tradition was changed when a Greek physician by the name of Hippocrates took health and diseases out of the gods’ hand and made it as a scientific explanation (Adler p 8). It was then that the term medicine was established. Medicine refers to the treatment of diseases. Hippocrates and his followers believed that diseases occurred when there is a change in the body that upset the normal balance of competing forces. These forces revealed themselves in the form of four basic fluids or humors: blood, phlegm, yellow pile, and black pile. From this belief, they developed a humoral[unfamiliar word, verify your spelling] theory which explains many of their observations. They say that the cold and wetness of winter slanted the balance in prone people in the direction of phlegm, causing colds, coughs, and lung problems (Adler 11).

During that time, doctors treated people based on the humoral theory and the Hippocratic belief. In the 19th century Louis Pasteur developed a germ theory that brought a change to the view of diseases forever. This theory stated that, “Germs cause disease” (Adler 109). From this theory, physicians began to think that diseases were caused by microorganisms (Adler 11).

Roy Porter stated that “Medicine owed its foundation as a science to Hippocrates and his successors, and such founding fathers were surely to be praised” (Porter p 15). “Today Hippocrates is known as the ‘Father of Medicine’” (Devley). People that practice medicine are given the title of doctor or physician. The title physician was first given to an Egyptian by the name of Sekhet’senannach, who cured a pharaoh’s malady in 3000 B.C (Bruno p 365).

According to John Bowker, “Christianity began in the Paschal Mystery, which is the life, ministry, death, resurrection, and ascension of Jesus. According to the Christian belief, Jesus was a Jewish man who is believed to be the Son of God.” (Bowker p 228). A Christian, however, is a disciple of Jesus. McGrath depicts that Christians refer to Jesus as the Messiah, the Lord, the Son of God, the Son of Man and God (McGrath p 351-354). During Jesus’ time of ministry, he taught people by his actions and his words. He also played a role of physician because he used his power to cured people and cast out demons. Christians believe that Jesus was sent by God to save the people from sin.

Both practices of medicine, religious or scientific, have a sacred text, however, the points depict differently in each. Christians use the Bible which contains the words of God. The Bible was written with the helped of the Holy Spirit and it was divided into two parts, the New Testament and the Old Testament. The author of the New Testament believes that God was acting and speaking in Jesus through his works and forgiveness of sins (Bowker p 228). Christians lived according to the Bible because the bible is the foundation of Christianity. The Bible consisted of 72 books.

Instead of using the Bible, physicians use the Hippocratic Corpus which contains related information about medicine. The Hippocratic Corpus was formed after the death of Hippocrates. The Hippocratic Corpus consists of 70 related medical works of Hippocrates and his followers (Adler 9). The Hippocratic Corpus stated, “The cardinal concept in the Hippocratic Corpus was that health was equilibrium and illness an upset, an explanation probably owing much to pre-Socratic attempts to understand the stability yet changeability of nature. On Regimen[?] pictured the body as being in perpetual flux: health was a matter of keeping it within bounds. More commonly notably in on the Nature of Man, the body was viewed as stable until illness subverted it. Imbalance would produce illness if it resulted in undue concentration of fluid in a particular body zone” (Porter p 56).

Sherwin B. Nuland stated that, “Both the Bible and the Hippocratic Corpus deal with man’s relationship to man and to another power outside himself. In the Greek writings, however, that power is nature; God an other forces that can be seen only with supernatural sight are excluded” ( Nuland p 4).

Medicine and Christianity have its own symbol. Christian uses the cross as its symbol to represent Christianity. According to John Bowker, “The cross demonstrated the truth of Jesus claiming that he was the son of man, the one who must die like all other” (Bowker p 239). All of the Christian churches around the world use this symbol in front of the church and inside the church to represent Christianity.

Unlike Christians, physicians started using the snake curled on a staff as its symbol since 1910 (Wolinsky and Brune p xv). According to Roy Porter, “Since ancient times, the serpent has symbolized medicine. It is not the serpent of the Judeo-Christian culture, which viewed snakes as a symbol of evil, but of ancient Greeks and Roman. To them, the snake’s ability to shed its skin was a powerful image for renewal and healing.”(Wolinsky and Brune xv).

Physicians sometimes use other symbol that frequently is confused with the snake on the staff. It is called the caduceus, this symbol has two snake with wings curled around the short olive tree. Both symbols are often looked as if they are similar. Physician uses both of this symbol [of these symbols?] interchangeably, either on their prescription pads, letter heads, or as a logo in front of their office building (Wolinsky and Brune p xvi-xvii).
Today, physicians are like priests, before they begin to practice, they must take a vow or an oath. They have to take an oath called The Hippocratic Oath before they can practice medicine. The Hippocratic Oath state: [the following quote should be indented]

I swear by Apollo the healer, by Aesculapius, by Health and all the powers of healing, and call to witness all the gods and goddesses that I may keep this Oath and Promise to the best of my ability and judgment.

I will pay the same respect to my master in the Science as to my parents and share my life with him and pay all my debts to him. I will regard his sons as my brothers and teach them the Science, if they desire to learn it, without fee or contract. I will hand on precepts, lectures and all other learning to my sons, to those of my master and to those pupils duly apprenticed and sworn, and to none other.

I will use my power to help the sick to the best of my ability and judgment; I will abstain from harming or wronging any man by it. I will not give a fatal draught to anyone if I am asked, nor will I suggest any such thing. Neither will I give a woman means to procure an abortion.

I will be chaste and religious in my life and in my practice.

I will not cut, even for the stone, but I will leave such procedures to the practitioners of that craft.

Whenever I go into a house, I will go to help the sick and even with the intention of doing harm or injury. I will not abuse my position to indulge in sexual contacts with the bodies of women or of men, whether they be freemen or slaves.

Whatever I see or hear, professionally or privately, which ought not to be divulged, I will keep secret and tell no one.

If, therefore, I observe this Oath and do not violate it, may I prosper both in my life and in my profession, earning good repute among all men for all time. If I transgress and forswear this Oath, may my lot be otherwise” (Porter p 30-31).

This oath was adopted by a Pythagorean physician in the fourth century (Brennan p 31). According to Porter, “The Oath foreshadowed the western paradigm of a profession (one who professes an oath) as a morally self regulating discipline among those sharing craft knowledge and committed to serving other” (Porter p 62). This oath prevents physician from doing harm and injustice to the patients.

Physicians are a servant of life. Physicians have to learn how to communicate effectively because sometimes patients are too shy to tell the physician of their problems[;] therefore physicians [must coax] the problem [from] patient. Physicians and patients must collaborate together to work out the problem, but under the physician’s leadership (Brenne p 51). Physicians use their specialized knowledge to treat patients. Physicians have an obligation to preserve both the physical and emotional well-being of the patient (Dunstan and Shinebourne p 224).

The American Medical Association developed the Code of ethics. The Code of ethics stated that physicians have a sacred duty to avoid all things that have a tendency to discourage the patient and to depress his spirits (Dunstan and Shinebourne p 225). Physicians are following in Jesus’ footsteps because during Jesus’ time of ministry he cured many people, such as the blind, the leprosy and he also cast out demons. Carla Dionne says, "Patients often feel their doctors are God. This is someone they have seen and trusted, perhaps delivered their children" (Jost Fischmen).



I stopped reading. I think your English is reasonably good. Have a friend or classmate read over your essay closely. Or perhaps someone else here will read through your essay thoroughly.



In the early church, women were not allowed to be a disciple of Jesus. But it was changed when Mary Magdella became the first disciple of Jesus. Similar to Christianity, women were barred from entering universities and practice medicine. But Dr. James Barry, the first female doctor in Canada brought up a proposal to allow women to enter the universities and practice medicine in the 19th century (Phillips). With the helped of Dr. James Barry proposal, a vast number of females entered the health profession everyday.

Today, physicians dress up in a certain uniform when they perform their duty. In contrast to priests, they have to wear a vestment when they perform mass in the Churches or Cathedrals. Cathedrals and churches were built to worship God and for the use of liturgy (Bowker p 278). But instead of wearing vestments, physicians wear a white coat when they are at work. Physicians work at the hospital, clinic and other health care services. The symbol for a hospital is an H. Most of the time, the H appears on the streets and highways to show travelers where the hospital is. The first hospital in North America was built in 1524 by Cortez (Encyclopedia). The hospital is “an institution that is built, staffed, and equipped for the diagnosis of disease; for the treatment, both medical and surgical, of the sick and the injured; and for their housing during this process” (Encyclopedia).

During examination of the patient, the physician takes the patient’s history, or “confession” (Elks). This is like when a priest hears confession of a sinner in the Church. After hearing the confession, the priest cannot exchange any of the information with anyone. While the doctor gets other doctors to acknowledge the patient’s health history or problems. Physicians do this to prevent from prescribing the wrong medications and to make sure that the patient has a certain disease. Physicians usually use the stethoscope and other instruments to examine the patients. After knowing the results of the patient, the physician suggests the patient to take certain actions, such as dieting and exercising (Elks).

In the 17th century, medical practices were separated into 3 distinct groups: physician, surgeon, and the apothecaries (MedlinePlus). “Physicians were viewed as elite and usually held a university degree. Surgeons, in contrast, were typically apprenticed and hospital trained and often served the dual role of barber-surgeon. Apothecaries also learned their roles prescribing, making, and selling medicines, through apprenticeships and sometimes within hospitals” (MedlinePlus).

Within medicine, there are two kinds of physicians in the United States, Doctor of Medicine and Doctor of Osteopathy. Both treat people with medicines, surgery, and other method of treating diseases. But Doctor of Osteopathy is an expertise at treating muscle, ligament, bones, and joints (Encarta). In order for students to become a doctor, they have to spend 4 years of studying at a college or university. After four years of studying, they have to attend medical school in order to earn a Doctor of Medicine (M.D) degree. After medical school, they must do a residency for two more years before they can get a license to practice medicine.

Physicians can also work in the pharmaceutical industry. In the pharmaceutical industry, there are at least two sections that communicate with the physician: the drug research section and the drug promotion section. Physicians usually communicate with the pharmaceutical industry face to face (Breen). The physician prescribes the medication and the pharmacist provides the medication to the patient. Physicians and pharmacists are working as a team to treat people.

“Medicine needs Christianity because Christianity provides a world view which gives human beings dignity as special creations of God and asserts that our actions in this life are of eternal significance (Saunders)”. Christian and physician are working for the same cause which is saving life and helping others. Physicians work to satisfy patients while Christians work to satisfy God. Physicians save people from disease while Christianity saves people from sin. The church teaches Christian how to live according to the 10 Commandment and the Bible. While Medical school teaches students how to save lives and help to relieve the pain from other.
Hi Esl123,

reading your research I was expecting to see references to ancient Egypt civilization beside the references to ancient Greece and, yes, fantastic, I found one:
People that practice medicine are given the title of doctor or physician. The title physician was first given to an Egyptian by the name of Sekhet’senannach, who cured a pharaoh’s malady in 3000 B.C (Bruno p 365)


3000 B.C.! Yes, if my readings are accurate, Greeks learnt from Egyptians both religion and Medicine. I think this is another very interesting subject to study. We frequently forget the profound influence of this African Civilization in the roots of Greece, then transmitted by Greece to Rome, and the line of the History continues till today.
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Thank you for all your great comments i really appreciate it