Hi, nice forum.

what does the phrase "in and of itself " mean? and what is the difference between "in itself" and "of itself"?

Same case with "for and on behalf of" what is the difference between "for somebody" and "on behalf of somebody"

Thank you
This means
"with respect to its inherent nature"
Like : This religion isn't evil in and of itself.

Thanks for your compliments.

I bought a present for Fran --> I bought a present to give to Fran

I bought a present for Joe's wife on behalf of Joe --> Joe is lazy. He asked me to buy a present and give it to his wife, as thought it were from him (i.e. on his behalf)

PS: Well explained Manpreet.
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I think "for" has another meaning as well: EX. I'll open the door for you / I'll wash the dishes for you = I'll open the door instead of you / I'll wash the dishes instead of you, as a favour. This is probably what Guest had in mind.
The very expression "for and on behalf" sounds as a legal term to me. EX. The contract is signed (by J.R. Johnson) for and on behalf of Precious Stones Ltd. This meaning is also given in the Webster's: in the interest of, on behalf of.

Probably somebody else will share an opinion too.
Hi. I'm Guest who started this thread.
thank you all for the explanation.

Is the phrase "Per pro " the same in meaning as "for and on behalf of"

thank you
I am attending on behalf of somebody else. I am looking for somebody I was at school with many years ago. I hope this helps guest.
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Hello Damalord

per pro. = 'per procurationem'. It's also often abbreviated as p.p.

This means 'by/through the agency of'.

If I'm your PA, and you're out of the office, I sign the letter for you and put p.p. before my name, i.e.
Yours sincerely

p.p. MrP


So it doesn't really mean 'for and on behalf of': if that were the case, I would have to put it before your name.

Thank you all guys. That was really sufficient and very helpful.

I appreciate it and I hope this forum will always be free.
It basically means 'that thing and only that thing with all other things being equal and unchanging.'

You could also consider this phrase being synonymous with the word 'qua' as in studing humans qua humanity; to study humans in and of themselves.
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