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For example, 1 year ago, I finished a degree programme in which I studied two subjects including English and maths.

Which one of the followings is correct in grammar ?

1) The subjects I studied in the degree programme include English and maths.

2) The subjects I studied in the degree programme included English and maths.
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1) The subjects I studied in the degree programme include English and maths.

2) The subjects I studied in the degree programme included English and maths.

I think you can use either one. I'm sure you can use the past tense.

If it were I, I'd use the present, to make the impression more current.

I hear it in the sense of "The list of subjects I studied includes A & B." (not "included")

(I'm not suggesting that you write that.)

Get more opinions!

The subjects I studied are A & B is more clearly grammatical, although "were" is unquestionably correct.

"Include" sounds more scholarly, but it may imply that there were more than the two you mention,
and one might wonder why they're excluded.
Thanks for your reply!

The reason why I am asking about which one ("include" or included") is a correct usage is that I have found that some people use "include" - present simple, but in my mind, "included" - past tense is more correct because "the subjects I studied" do no longer exist.

For example, Person A died. He was an artist and a good husband.

So I am thinking which one ("include" or included") is correct in principle Emotion: smile
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AnonymousThe reason why I am asking about which one ("include" or included") is a correct usage is that I have found that some people use "include" - present simple, but in my mind, "included" - past tense is more correct because "the subjects I studied" do no longer exist.
For example, Person A died. He was an artist and a good husband.
So I am thinking which one ("include" or included") is correct in principle Emotion: smile
Hi, Anon.
I understand exactly where you're coming from. This consideration was in my mind too.

But you can look at it two ways. The subjects of English and Maths will always exist.
Dr Jones' course in Contemporary English may no longer exist.

Get other opinions! Emotion: smile

Regarding the artist you mention (or, mentioned), I often ask, "Is Shakespeare the author of "Macbeth," or was he?"
I think it depends on your definitions. What does it mean to BE the author of something?

CJ says it's never incorrect to backshift. So you can play it safe and backshift.
My vote in favor of the present tense is (was) based on the impression of currency which the present tense lends to your resume.
(Does my vote still exist? I think so.)
Hello Avangi, thanks for your sharing. I may start to understand why you favor the present tense as "the subjects I studied in the past" are unchanged (still the subjects I studied in the past).

To verify my understanding, I would like to ask some questions:-

1) A past thing can be in present tense.

For example, The world was very peaceful in 2000.

Can I say: "2000 is a peaceful year" ??

2) The use of past or present tense to describe a thing depends on the time which I want to refer to. For example,

F died in 2000. He was a good father in his life time.

G asks me: "How do you think of F?"

I think I can say:

"He is a good father" -> this means that he is a good father in my mind at the moment.

"He was a good father" -> this means that he was a good father in his time.

Thank you in advance Emotion: smile
I think I can say:
"He is a good father" -> this means that he is a good father in my mind at the moment.

"He was a good father" -> this means that he was a good father in his time.

This is a little tough. I'll have to think about it.
We also have habitual behavior to contend with. "She always does the right thing." (present tense)
I think that if she's dead, we must say, "She always did the right thing."
But you can say, "In his plays, Shakespeare always doesthe right thing." Go figure. Emotion: it wasnt me
I guess it's because his "actions" are set for posterity.

So why do I have trouble with "He is a good father" referring to a deceased person?
I have no problem with "Here lies a good father." (present tense) But the verb "lies" is one step removed from the verb "to be," as in "He is a good father." Being a good father requires constant action. We no longer have that.
So why can I accept "Shakespeare is a great author" ?

I think being an author is different from being a father, and I believe we usually think of being a good father as different from being my father.
Being a good father involves actions. Being my father is a simple incontrovertable fact.
Are you related to John Brown? (reply) Yes, he was/is my father. (deceased)
I have no trouble with the present tense here.

Can I say: "2000 is a peaceful year" ??

I think it depends on the context.
Clearly, you can say, "2000 is a year which was very peaceful."

We also have the historical present to contend with.
In 5000 BC the world undergoes tremendous geological upheavals. (present tense)

But I think in the context of some kind of survey involving several years, it would be natural to use the present tense (as opposed to the historical present).

Similarly, "He is a good father" would work in certain contexts, as you suggest.

Rgdz, --A.

As I said, get more opinions!
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Hello Avangi,

I agree to your analysis which is clear and helpful to me! I have made some general notes (so that if I need to use "be" or relevant verbs to talk about a past thing, I can know easily which tense I should use in general). I attach it as follows for sharing.

- Talking about the past

eg. He died in 1997. He was PP’s father vs. He is PP’s father (Note: Present simple is possible as it is an unchanged fact and does not involve actions to continue, but here we are talking about the past, so all are in the past tense)

- Talking about a state which has become no longer true

e.g He was a good father in the past, but now he is not.

- Talking about a state involving actions which have not continued after “the past”

e.g He died in 1997. He was a good father.

Thanks and Regards Emotion: smile
I think, Avangi made everything clear.

eg. He died in 1997. He was PP’s father vs. He is PP’s father

He died in 1997. He was PP's father.

"He is PP's father" seems correct, not because its the unchangable fact but because it shows the affection with that person whom you are talking about.

My personal view.
It's not an easy thing to pin down.
Vanilla is my favorite flavor. (Vanilla will always be a flavor.)

When I was a child, chocolate was my favorite flavor.
XXX is my favorite brand of ice cream.
YYY was my favorite brand of ice cream. It is still my all-time favorite, but they stopped making it.Emotion: crying

Context, context, context!
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