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Hu Jintao last visited India in 1984.
Twenty-two years later, as the Chinese president renewed ties with his closest Asian rival, he saw an India that had changed considerably.
Politically, India is no longer dominated by a single party but instead is governed by relatively stable if somewhat unruly coalitions.
Economically the country is snapping at China's heels, competing with it for global energy resources to feed its fast-growing economy while also presenting an attractive market for Chinese goods.
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In the second sentence of the above, you will read the words 'had changed'. It seems a past perfect sentence.
What is wrong with writing ' he saw an India that changed considerably' ?
Comments  
Hi,

Twenty-two years later, as the Chinese president renewed ties with his closest Asian rival, he saw an India that had changed considerably.

Politically, India is no longer dominated by a single party but instead is governed by relatively stable if somewhat unruly coalitions.

Economically the country is snapping at China's heels, competing with it for global energy resources to feed its fast-growing economy while also presenting an attractive market for Chinese goods.

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In the second sentence of the above, you will read the words 'had changed'. It seems a past perfect sentence.

What is wrong with writing ' he saw an India that changed considerably' ? You can say either, but with different meanings.

Past Perfect means that the changing happened before he saw India.

Simple Past sounds like the changing happened after he saw India. This interpretation seems to be supported by the rest of what is said.

Best wishes, Clive
«Hu Jintao last visited India in 1984.

Twenty-two years later, as the Chinese president renewed ties with his closest Asian rival, he saw an India that had changed considerably.»

Clive: «Simple Past sounds like the changing happened after he saw India. This interpretation seems to be supported by the rest of what is said.»

With all due respect to you as to a native English speaker, I disagree.

First, you can see that it is year 2006 in question (1984+22).

Second, the whole sentence shows that the Chinese president saw a new (or another) India, very different from what it had been in 1984!

So, it is the change that India had undergone since 1984 that is meant, and, therefore, Past Perfect tense is used (India had already changed when he saw it, it was a totally different coutry by the time of the 2006 visit).

Sorry, if I am wrong, but I can't make myself think the other way...
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Clive
You are being a native speaker of English, it is easy to understand and tell me the way you interpret it. To be candid, it is not easy for me. I can't perceive the nuances you have mentioned.
You are correct. It is not your fault that I don't see the nuances.
To me, there are no nuances here. Things are quite clear.

Past Perfect is used (among other uses) to denote an action that happened at a moment denoted by a relation to another action

For example, one action is «I finished my work»

Another action is «My fried came»

So:
«My friend came when I had finished my work».

The moment he came is characterized by the fact that my work was already finished when he came.

The same applies to your example.
had changed ...the changes happened before he went there.

that changed...the changes were happening while he was there.
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Hu Jintao last visited India in 1984.
Twenty-two years later, as the Chinese president renewed ties with his closest Asian rival, he saw an India that had changed considerably.

1. Mr Jintao last visited India in 1984.
2. He visited India again last week or rather 22 years later.
The so-called changes took place not in 1984. They took place after 1984. His first visit was in 1984. He noticed some changes when he visited last week.
[ I don' know how to combine those two events in a past perfect sentence.]

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Now look at your example.

My friend came when I had finished my work.
3. I finished my work.
4. A friend visited me after I wrote the letter.
[This is clear to me because the preposition 'after' makes two clear separate events. In other words, this is a past perfect tense. There are two events. You push one event before the other event using the preposition 'after'.]
Hi,

It's true that I didn't do the math (1984 + 22). I didn't look at the headline, I just looked at the tenses.

I now suggest that Present Perfect would be a better choice than Past Perfect. The 'seeing' is so close to the present, and the sentences that follow all refer to the present situation. What he saw recently is still the situation 'today'.

Twenty-two years later, as the Chinese president renewed ties with his closest Asian rival, he saw an India that has changed considerably.

Politically, India is no longer dominated by a single party but instead is governed by relatively stable if somewhat unruly coalitions.

Economically the country is snapping at China's heels, competing with it for global energy resources to feed its fast-growing economy while also presenting an attractive market for Chinese goods.

Best wishes again, Clive
«...he saw an India that has changed considerably.»

Hmmm. Doesn't this give a feeling that India has changed since the moment he saw it?

I incline to agree with Nona... Of course, I may be not right.
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