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Hello there

Few questions about infinitve vs ing

Please verify these. Bit detailed. Thank you.


1. Can we use participles as adverbial modifiers or just as adjective modifiers?


2. Participle are adjective but infinitve can only be adjective modifier not adjectives themselves

3. As verbs object

We use Infinitive (when idea is abstract or depends on main verb) and gerund when the idea is real or coexists with main verb
Now as per couple of articles and a book
Infinitive works as noun if verb is non action verb/answers 'what' eg. want or like Works as Adverb if verb is an action verb/answers 'why how when to what extent'Eg. Study.
Question Gerunds are nouns. So gerund should only be used after non action verb/that answers what. Since gerunds or ing cannot work as adverbial modifiers.But this is not the case as gerunds are used after many action verbs answering why which when how ie as adverbial modifiers. Thus confused?
Or maybe my idea of action verbs is wrong, it can answer 'what' Ie. we can use gerunds after action verbs answering what but not after verbs that answer why when how etc. Right.In summary what+futue event/unreal infinitve as noun, why when how +fuure event infinitve adverbial modifiers and what+ real or coexists use gerunds but cant use gerunds after verbs puspise or how why when.
4. As adjective modifier after noun or objective pronouns. Should we use same guidelines that we use while deciding verbs object ie. If (real, complete) use participles adjective modifier else if ( abstract, unreal or provides a purpose) use infinitve adjective modifier

Eg. Willingness to achieve or i told him to future and if it would be present or real use participles correct?


5. Also Should we use same guidelines while deciding subject complements

Eg. My desire was to become a doctor(provides a purpose)
What i hate is becoming a doctor (real ie. Not futue event)

Am i thing in the right direction?

6. And with reduced relative clause. Use same guidelines?

Thanks you so much in advance

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Hi there please help me with the queries above, let me summarize it.


1 can we use same rule to decide gerund vs infinitve (as subject complement) and while deciding participle vs infinitive adjective modifier.

Rule -when idea is abstract, in future, provides a purpose or depends on main verb to complete use infinitve and gerund when the idea is real or coexists with main verb

The same rule that we follow while deciding verbs object Right?

Plane to land - in future and plane landing participle definin plane right?

Or subject complement -my wish is become doctor (puspose) vs what i hate is becoming doctor (hate takes gerund)

Also what to keep in mind in reduced relative clause, should we follow the same rule.


2. Can participles work as adverbial modifiers or juat as adjectives


3. If infinitve follows a verb that defines what than it is noun else with action verbs it is adverb modifier

Now since gerunds+participles only work as noun or adjectives but not as adverb so by rule ING verb should never follow any verb that defines why how when which /any action?

4 journeys are to tire you

Here infinitives is working as adjective modifier Right (since it answers why)


Hope you help thankyou

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 AlpheccaStars's reply was promoted to an answer.
Sure Alpheccastars.
Let me summarise the questions above. Please help me.
1. To decide if we should use gerund or infinitive (verbs object) the Rule we generally follow is- if the action is abstract, in future, provides a purpose or depends on main verb to complete use infinitve(want, like) and if the action is real or coexists with main verb use gerund(enjoy, admire)
Query-- Can we use same rule to decide subject complement.
Eg. My wish 'is to become' a doctor vs what i hate 'is repeating' myself
and while deciding participle vs infinitive as adjective modifier.
Eg. Plane to land(adjective modifier) vs plane landing (participle)
Also what to keep in mind in reduced relative clause, should we follow the same rule.
2. Can participles work as adverbial modifiers or just as adjectives

3. If infinitve follows a verb that defines 'what' then it is noun else with action verbs it is adverb modifierI want to sing(noun)I study to learn (adverbial modifier)
Now since gerunds+participles(ing) only work as noun or adjectives but not as adverb so by rule ING verb should never follow any verb that defines why how when which /any action?am i right?

4 journeys are tiring (participle)

If we say to tire

Then infinitve would work as adjective modifier Right (since it answers why/how not what)?

thankyou so much in advance.
johnmccan11. To decide if we should use gerund or infinitive (verbs object) the Rule we generally follow is- if the action is abstract, in future, provides a purpose or depends on main verb to complete use infinitve (want, like) and if the action is real or coexists with main verb use gerund(enjoy, admire)

No. There is no set rule. You have to memorize the catenative verbs and which form they take as a complement.

Sometimes you can use either one, and sometimes the meaning will change or the main verb forms are different for the equivalent meaning.

I remember locking the door.
I remembered to lock the door.
I forgot to lock the door.
I forgot locking the door. (different meaning)
I love eating pizza.
I love to eat pizza. (same meaning)
I enjoy eating.
X I enjoy to eat.
I need to leave now.
X I need leaving now.
But: I need some loving now.
johnmccan1Query-- Can we use the same rule to decide subject complement.

No. There is no rule.

My wish is to become a doctor.
My wish is becoming a doctor.

What I hate is having to repeat myself.

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This is a fantastic post! Emotion: rose