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A website says that "by" in the following sentence is an adverb.

1. The farmer laid by his crops.

But if we analyze, we can see that the word "by" answers the question "what" which makes it a preposition. Also the website says that "crops" directyly receives the action of the farmer and is the direct object of the verb "laid". If it is so then isn't "a small lake" in the following sentence also a direct object of the verb. But here the word "upon" is preposition and "small lake" is its object [indirect object of the verb].

2. We came upon a small lake.

Please clarify this problem.
You can visit the website. http://www.readbygrade3.com/prep.html

GB
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Comments  
To lay by is a phrasal verb, and by is an adverbial particle belonging to the verb. what does the farmer lay by? his crops.
We came upon a small lake. This is another phrasal verb
what did you come upon? and not where did you come? upon a small lake.

Inchoateknowledgewhat does the farmer lay by? his crops.
So, isn't it true that when the particle in the phrasal verb answers the question what or whom, it's a preposition.

GB
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InchoateknowledgeTo lay by is a phrasal verb, and by is an adverbial particle belonging to the verb. what does the farmer lay by? his crops.

So, isn't it true that when a particle in a phrasal verb could be questioned by what or whom, it's a preposition (by).

GB
Maybe reading this way can help to comprehend "by" as an adv in "lay by".Emotion: rolleyes

I put down my luggage./ I put my luggage down. (acceptable, down is an adv.)

The farmer laid by his crops. / The farmer laid his crops by. (acceptable)

We came upon a small lake. / We came a small lake upon. (inacceptable)
MapleMaybe reading this way can help to comprehend "by" as an adv in "lay by".Emotion: rolleyes

The farmer laid by his crops. / The farmer laid his crops by. (acceptable)

We came upon a small lake. / We came a small lake upon. (inacceptable)

So, it means that if we move the particle to the end position and if it sounds good, then it proves that it's an adverb otherwise it's not.

GB
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That's only my take.Emotion: rolleyes
MapleThat's only my take.Emotion: rolleyes

Ya, but it does make some sense. But still, we can't rely completely on it because there are several situations where You can place a preposition in the end of a sentence.

GB
Does it help if you know that 'laid by' in this context means 'to store'.
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