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Hi there

I understand that with verb-to-be sentence, we can use noun, adverb and adjective after the verb-to-be:

eg He is Peter (noun)
The dog is outside (adverb)
She is great (adjective)

It is also correct to say: The work is done (done is the past particple form of do).

My question is that are all past particples can be used as an adjective?

Also, what is the difference between is/has been, or are/have been?
eg

It was completed, and it has been completed? Is has/have been also a verb-to-be?

I am a bit confused, if somebody can help me?

Thanks
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Hi Anon:
If you look in any English language reference book under verb tenses, you will find the answer to your question.

"be" is a helping verb (auxilliary) for the passive voice of verbs, and "have" is the helping verb for all the perfect tenses. "been" is the past participle of "be", and "have been" is the auxiliary for the present perfect passive voice of transitive verbs. The past participle is used in the verb phrase for passive voice. The past participle can also be used as an adjective.

Examples:

I send a letter to Bill every week. (active voice, simple present)
A letter is sent by me to Bill every week. (the above, changed to passive voice)

Mary baked a pie for dinner. (active voice, simple past)
The pie for dinner was baked by Mary. (the above, changed to passive voice)

I have sent a letter to Bill today. (active voive, present perfect tense)
A letter has been sent to Bill today. (passive voice, present perfect tense)

Mary has baked a pie for dinner. (active voive, present perfect tense)
The pie for dinner has been baked by Mary. (the above, changed to passive voice)

Mary had baked a pie for dinner, (but the dog ate it). (active voice, past perfect tense)
The pie (that the dog ate) had been baked by Mary for dinner. (the above, changed to passive voice)

Adjectives:
scrambled eggs
well-done meat
chipped dish
broken door
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AnonymousI understand that with verb-to-be sentence, we can use noun, adverb and adjective after the verb-to-be:

eg He is Peter (noun)
The dog is outside (adverb)
She is great (adjective)

It is also correct to say: The work is done (done is the past particple form of do).

My question is that are whether all past particples can be used as an adjectives.?
It is correct to say The work is done. Yes. But not all past participles in that position in a sentence are adjectives. Many are, but not all. And many cases are ambiguous. If there is not enough context, the past participle may be seen as an adjective or it may be seen as part of a passive verb construction.

The door is closed. It is not open. (closed is an adjective.)
The door is closed at 7 every evening. (closed is part of is closed, a passive construction. Somebody closes the door at 7 every evening.)

CJ
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Comments  
Anonymouswhat is the difference between is/has been, or are/have been?
is and are apply to the present time period.
has been and have been apply to an entire span of time from a time in the past to the present time period. The starting time in the past may be specified with since.

The dog is outside. (I look outside now, and I see the dog.)
The dog has been outside since 10 this morning. (The dog was put outside at 10; he is still outside. I can claim this if I know about what happened concerning the dog. I can't claim this just by looking outside and seeing the dog now.)

The girls are great with children. (This is the present situation. You can say this if you observe it now.)
The girls have always been great with children. (This situation has always existed. You can't say this unless you know the entire history of the girls' behavior with children.)

CJ
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