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Contrary means opposite, right?

Contrary to the belief that elephants have got seven trunks, Billy thinks that elephants have got only one trunk which have been substantiated scientifically.

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mosjaContrary means opposite, right?

That's the first definition in the Oxford dictionary, so I'd say so.

Opposite in nature, direction, or meaning.

mosjaContrary to the belief that elephants have got seven trunks, Billy thinks that elephants have got only one trunk, which has have been substantiated scientifically.

At a minimum, I'd change it as shown above. It's still not perfect, though. Contrary to the belief ..., Billy thinks doesn't quite say it correctly.

It's better if you compare belief to belief (nouns) or think to think (verbs).

Contrary to the belief that elephants have got seven trunks, the belief that they have only one trunk has been substantiated scientifically. (You have to leave out Billy or put him in another sentence if you do this.)

Contrary to thinking that elephants have got seven trunks, Billy thinks that they have only one trunk, which has been substantiated scientifically. (But in this sentence, 'Contrary to' doesn't sound as good as 'Instead of'.)

CJ

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It's the same.

I'm not sure that a belief in one trunk is contrary to a belief in 7 trunks, at least not in the sense of 'opposite'.

contrary to me implies two choices.


In addition, it's the fact, not the trunk, that would be substantiated scientifically.

ie .Contrary to the belief that elephants have got seven trunks, Billy thinks that elephants have got only one trunk and that this fact has been substantiated scientifically.

I think it's more like "against" the idea. Contrary

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 CalifJim's reply was promoted to an answer.