ABOUT 90 million single children ___ in China since the country started the one-child policy in the late 1970s, said Zhang Weiqing

#1. Is this sentence a direct speech or reported speech?

#2. Should we use "had been born " or "have been born " ?

#3. Do we have to change "have done" into "had done" in reported speech?
1-- Since it has no quotation marks, I presume that it is reported speech... but I suspect that it should have quotation marks.

2-- Have

3-- Yes
My ideas are the same as Mr. M's.

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Any different ideas?
 CalifJim's reply was promoted to an answer.
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Hi. I think I have seen from some online sources and heard from a friend who is good in English, telling that, in regard to reported speech, something like if the sequence is clear, or there is an if-clause or a subordinate clause that starts with the word "when," the back-shifting is not necessary.

I think I have seen over the years some sentences that did not back-shift when it was pretty clear (not sure, though) that they were report speech. I also think the sentences below are examples that examplify what has been talked about here.


He said as he woke up one morning, a fly came into the room and bit him on the arm.

He said when he came home, his father was there at home.