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From this sentence "Over the past decade, as much as four-fifths of that ivory has been of illegal origin -- poached , then smuggled . ", I wonder whether " that " is a subject which governs two verbs " poached" and " smuggled".

From my own understanding , the above sentence is originally written as " Over the past decade, as much as four-fifths of that ivory is of illegal origin has been poached , then (has been) smuggled."

Thank you.!
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...as much as four-fifths of that ivory has been of illegal origin -- poached , then smuggled.

No, 'that' is merely modifying 'ivory'. 'Poached' and 'smuggled' could be adjectives or they could form a compound absolute clause whose implied subject would be 'ivory'.
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Could you please explain more in detail? My question is that if "poach" and " smuggled" form a compound absolute clause..., could you show me that absolute clause ? After reading your answer, I conclude that the base sentence is " As much as four-fifths of that ivory has been of illegal origin." Is "of illegal origin", a prepositional phrase a modifier of "ivory"?

And if they (poached, smuggled) are adjective, would they be treated as " that "poached, smuggled" ivory ? I would think of them as verb in passive form if they were written down following " has been " .

Thanks ,
Anonymous My question is that if "poach" and " smuggled" form a compound absolute clause..., could you show me that absolute clause ?
"poached, then smuggled"
AnonymousIs "of illegal origin", a prepositional phrase a modifier of "ivory"?
Yes, that's right.
AnonymousAnd if they (poached, smuggled) are adjective, would they be treated as " that "poached, smuggled" ivory ?
Yes, that's right.
Anonymous I would think of them as verb in passive form if they were written down following " has been " .
I would, too. But they were not.
I got your explanation, yet I still somewhat..do not get it clearly. I only heard of Absolute phrase, not absolute clause, not even a compound absolute clause. Is it the same ? From my understanding, a subordinate clause also has a sentence structure as "subject + verb" . From your previous #1 answer, poached, then smuggled is an absolute clause.. what is a subject? Ivory? Should it not be together ? Perhaps it may help if you could give another example of a compound absolute clause .

Thank you,
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Yes, absolute phrase = absolute clause = non-finite clause.

Bruised and battered by his opponent, the fighter stayed down for the ten-count.

The school bus went quickly over the road