If i am referring to the phone conversation that we had, would "talking" or "speaking" be preferred?

It was a pleasure talking / speaking with you

I don't believe there's a preference. Both are very common. "Speaking" has a more formal flavor and "talking" is more casual.
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Cogar It was a pleasure talking / speaking with you
"Talk to" not "talk with".
Cogar It was a pleasure talking / speaking with you
"Talk to" not "talk with".
This seems a bit narcissistic. Don't we allow the other party to speak? "It was a pleasure walking/dining with you."

Must we say, "It was a pleasure conversing/talking-and-listening with you"?

You might be interested in reading this What is the difference between "Talk"(VERB) and "Speak"(VERB).

By the way, 'talk with' is okay. Examples from Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English:

"1. I got the truth from talking with Elena.
2. Parents should talk with their children about drug abuse."
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I tend to agree with Bokeh on this one. "Talk with" is not wrong but it sounds uncomfortable to most ears. General rule of thumb is "speak with" but "talk to". Correct me if I am wrong.

“Speaking with” to me has a connotation of a mutual exchange.

“Speaking to” on the other hand has the connotation of being unidirectional.
It's just a construction I wouldn't use personally as it sounds strange to me. I would say:
  • talk to someone
  • talk with a lisp
I agree with Goodman in that "talk to" sounds like one way communication and "talk with" sounds like bi-directional communications.
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May be we can say:

"It was a pleasure interacting with you"?
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