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He is one year junior / senior to me.
He is one year junior / senior than me.

He is inferior / superior to me.
He is inferior / superior than me.

Is "than" acceptable in these sentences? If not, why? Thanks
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In this type of sentence, "than" is used with the comparative form of an adjective:

He is better than me.

He is more cautious than me.

(Edit: These are everyday sentences. Formally, you would say "than I am" rather than "than me")

Your sentences don't use comparative forms of adjectives, so "than" does not work.
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The news reported yesterday that Cher is going to marry a man 17 years her junior.

The teacher was just out of college herself, so she was only six years my senior.
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Comments  
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No, because it is an incorrect English structure. They are adjectives.
 Mr Wordy's reply was promoted to an answer.
Thanks MM and Wordy
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 Philip's reply was promoted to an answer.
Thanks Philip,

Your sample senteces are excellent.