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Is it possible to convert
He stopped smoking.


into
He learned not to smoke.


?
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Comments  (Page 2) 
Hello Taka

I know you get unpleasant with this, but please allow me to put my two cents on your question.

"He learned to smoke"
If we compare this with "He learned English", we see "to smoke" here is working as a noun phrase. If we negate the action "smoke", we get a sub-surface collocation like "He learned to not smoke". But this one is not grammatical, and so we should change it into "He learned not to smoke". Here we should remind "He learned not to smoke" is not equal to "He didn't learn to smoke".

"He came here to play"
We have to note that "to play" here is working as a purpose adverb phrase. If we negate the purpose adverbial "to play", we get : "He came here not to play". However, it is common in English to raise negation of a purpose adverbial to that of the whole sentence. Hence "He didn't come here to play" is also possible.

"He came to be wise"
As noted by MrP, we can take this verb "come" as "become", the sense that is typically exemplified by the phrase "My dream came true". And we see the infinitival phrase "to be wise" is working as a subject complement. If you negate "wise" in the infinitival phrase, you would get "He came to be unwise", and if you negate the whole sentence, you'll get "He didn't come to be wise".

"He learned to be wise".
This "to be wise" may be taken either as a purpose adverbial (i.e, "He learned for becoming wise") or a resultant complement (i.e, "He learned and became wise"). The negation of "wise" would yield "He learned to be unwise", which to my thought would be commonly interpreted as "He learned but remained unwise". "He learned not to be wise" would be also possible and in this case too we could take the infinitive as a resultant complement (i.e, "He learned not to be wise but to be sly"). On the other hand, "He didn't learn to be wise" sounds somehow weird, though "He didn't learn much enough to be wise" seems natural.

What does this messy matter tell us? I think it tells us that, as for licensing of negative infinitive clauses, we cannot find any good rule independent from the context.

It's just my humble opinion and no reply is needed.

paco
To paco2004,

Re: Here we should remind "He learned not to smoke" is not equal to "He didn't learn to smoke".

"We should remind" WHOM, may I ask? In this contect "should remind" is a transitive verb, or am I wrong??
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No, you're right. That 'remind' should be 'note'.

paco
As noted by MrP, we can take this verb "come" as "become"


No. He didn't say that. He said it was close to " became accustomed to do, over time".

Huge difference.
come to be ~ = grow to be ~ = become ~

The River Thames came to be a place of public resort = The River Thames became a place of public resort.

But I should admit "come to be an adjective" is someway redundant, because it can be contracted into "come an adjective".

paco
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come to be ~ = grow to be ~ = become ~


I have to say that is kind of a 'forced' analysis, or a labored explanation; you seem to be stretching the truth so it fits to your initial statements which are based on the wrong interpretation.

You have to admit one thing: MrP didn't say that "come" could be taken as "become"; he said "come to do"---not only "come to be"--- was close to " become accustomed to do, over time." I think the "accusomed" of "become accustomed" is very important. The meaning of 'come' seemes to be related to the "accustomed" somehow, which implies a certain point one has gotten to.

Anyway, even if your analysis were true, how would you explain the expression like "come to know"?
On reflection, perhaps my earlier comments were too vague. Some random googles:

1. I have come to appreciate the ways in which Australia is planning
for the development of a sustainable water infrastructure.

= I have gradually acquired an appreciation of the ways etc.

2. As a psychologist, you will come to appreciate cultural differences and nuances.

= you will gradually acquire an appreciation of cultural differences etc.

3. How I Came to Write 'Paul Bowles: A Life' by Virginia Spencer Carr.

= How it happened that I wrote 'Paul Bowles' etc.

4. He has come to regret this greatly.

= he has gradually arrived at the state of regretting this greatly.

5. He has come to see the value of knowing the people...

= He has gradually arrived at the state of seeing the value etc.

6. Even knowledge about perspective, he has come to believe, is acquired in
similar ways...

= Even knowledge about perspective, he has gradually arrived at the state of believing, is acquired etc.


So perhaps a better paraphrase would be:

'To come to V' = 'to arrive gradually at the state of V-ing', 'to attain gradually the state of V-ing'.

I don't know if that helps.

MrP
'To come to V' = 'to arrive gradually at the state of V-ing', 'to attain gradually the state of V-ing'.


Perfect! Amazingly perferct! That even gives me the answer why Clive said theoretically this might be also possible:
'He came to not smoke'.


I don't know if that helps.


I don't know if there exists a better help than yours.

Let me call you my 'sensei' again.

Thank you very much, MrP!
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You're welcome, Taka! and apologies for my earlier vagueness.

MrP
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