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Infinitive:

1) They are only/but/all too pleased to help you.

What does this sentence mean? "They are too pleased, so they won't help you." or " They are too pleased ,so they help you"?

2)I am not/never too busy to come.

It mean "I can come or not?

3)He intended to have gone abroad last year ,but his mother suddenly fell ill.

Why the answer is not "to go"?

4)She is so foolish as to cry over a novel.

i just know the struture S+ is/are + so -clause , it the above sentence right?

5)You had better have seen the doctor earlier.

What is the meaning of this sentence and can we replace "have seen" with see?

6) Student should form the good habit to consullt dictionary.

Student should form the good habit of consulting dictionary.

What are the meanings of these two sentence above?

Gerund:

1)"Tom 's coming" or "Tom coming " is correct?

"chickens coming" or "chickens' coming" is correct?

2)The surroundings is/are beautiful?

This surroundings is/are beautiful?

The findings is/are useful?

3)Battleing the desert is the only chance to avoid starvation.

Battleing the desert is the only chance avoiding starvation

What is the difference in meaning between these two sentences?

4)Trees are cut for firewood, leaving the soil against wind and rain.

Trees are cut for firewood. Trees leave the soil against wing and rain << It is quite strange? Then what is the simples form of the sentence above?

5) I hope you don't mind my looking at your newspaper.

What is the nature of the word "looking" ? Is it a gerund used as a noun and "my" is used to modifies "looking"?

6)We don't understanf why you object to with us.

A. his coming (answer)

B him coming << but i think it is correct too because "We don't understande why you object to him (who is) coming with us" .Is it correct?

7)They are discussing the problem of to the moon.

A. a man's flying

B. men's flying

What is the answer and why?

8) There is no royal road to learn/learning ? and why?

9)We found the baby on the floor .

A.sleep << why it is wrong?

B. sleeping(answer)

C.alseep (answer)

Participle

1)She had her house .

A.destroyed << why it is wrong? Isn't "have something destroyed" equal to "something was destroyed"?

B.to be destroyed. (answer)

2)The editoral will appear in tomorrow's newspaper.

A. writing.<< why it is wrong. Can't i refer "editoral" as an adjective and "writing" as a noun?

B. being writen (answer)

3)During the battle some soilder were wound and some missing.

What is the original/simplest form of the sentence above?

sorry for asking so many questions.

Thank a lots.
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Comments  (Page 2) 
Gerund(2)
5) "I hope you don't mind my looking at your newspaper." What is the nature of the word "looking" ? Is it a gerund used as a noun and "my" is used to modifies "looking"?
"My looking at" is a gerundive phrase of "I look at".
6)We don't understand why you object to [ ] with us.
A. his coming (answer)
B. him coming (but I think it is correct too because "We don't understand why you object to him (who is) coming with us" .Is it correct?
You are right.
7) They are discussing the problem of [ ] to the moon.
A. a man's flying
B. men's flying
What is the answer and why?
Isn't it "man's flying"?
8) There is no royal road to learn/learning ? and why?
"Learning" because commonly people do not walk to learn.
9) We found the baby [ ] on the floor . A.sleep << why it is wrong? B. sleeping(answer) C. alseep (answer)
My guess is it is because "find" is a verb for an instantaneous activity "find".

paco
1)She had her house. A. destroyed << why it is wrong? Isn't "have something destroyed" equal to "something was destroyed"? B.to be destroyed. (answer)
The correct answer is A.
2)The editorial [… ] will appear in tomorrow's newspaper. A. writing.<< why it is wrong. Can't I refer "editorial" as an adjective and "writing" as a noun? B. being writen (answer)
C. "blank". The correct answer is C.
3) During the battle some soldier were wound and some missing. What is the original/simplest form of the sentence above?
During the battle some soldiers were wound and some soldiers were missing.

paco
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Infinitive:

Hi, for your questions, I think some of them were formed rather awkwardly. Anyhow, I will try to offer my 2 cents.

1) They are only too pleased to help you. (rather strange way of saying it )– This means they are more than happy to help you.

2)I am never too busy to come. – It means I will find time to come, busy or not.

3)He intended to have gone abroad last year ,but his mother suddenly fell ill.

This means, if not for his mother’s illness, he would have gone abroad last year. But he didn’t go for that reason.

4)She is so foolish as to cry over a novel. – Yes, this sentence is right! It means she was emotionally overwhelmed by the novel.

5)You had better have seen the doctor earlier. The tone and tense are rather odd. I would say “You had better” does not go with this context. If I guess correctly, do you mean to say” you should have seen the doctor earlier” ?

6) Student should form the good habit of consulting dictionary. Infinitive is not preferred in this context but grammatically it sound acceptable. But “good habit” is a noun which needs a preposition with a gerund to complete the sentence. Compare the following:

1) She has a routine of running for 30 minute in the morning before taking a shower.

2) Her routine in the morning is to run for 30 minutes before taking a shower.

These two sentences basically correct in conveying the same idea but one uses “gerund” while the other in “infinitive”. The difference is the context in which the idea id expressed.

Gerund:

1)"Tom 's coming"- is correct?

2)The surroundings is/are beautiful?

Surrounding (or setting) typically is considered a collective noun. Example: The surrounding of this house is very tranquil with a view of lake and mountain. However, you will find “surroundings” used in a plural form with certain context.

This surrounding is beautiful. - Correct

The findings is/are useful? – Same explanation. You will find “surroundings” used in a plural form with certain context

3)Battling the desert is the only way to avoid starvation. –correct, but I would use” way” instead of “chance” to improve the context. It’s more correct to say “The only way to avoid starvation is to battle the desert”.

The only way of avoiding starvation is to battle the desert. - need the “of” to complete the sentence.

4)Trees are cut for firewood, leaving the soil against (the elements/ erosion) wind and rain

Revised: Trees are cut for commercial purpose, leaving the soil exposed to the elements / wing and rain

5) I hope you don't mind my looking at your newspaper. This type o structure is very common. I hope you don't mind- this part is a complete sentence. My looking at your newspaper is a participle clause describing the action.

More i.e….

* I caught him just in time, [saving the trouble to call him again].

* She woke up early, [expecting her mother to arrive]

The bracketed segments are clauses which modify the preceding contents.

6)We don't understand why you object to with us. In order to understand, why A is correct, it’s necessary for one to see that “object to” or “subject to” is always followed by a noun; as in “the schedule is subject o “change”. In your question, “His coming” is a present participle being used a noun.

Hope I have helped !

Sorry folks,

My finger was too fast for my own goods I posted my thread too many times! [ :-) ]
I took care of the two extra duplicates.

Cheers.
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Infinitive:

.5)You had better have seen the doctor earlier. The tone and tense are rather odd. I would say “You had better” does not go with this context. If I guess correctly, do you mean to say” you should have seen the doctor earlier” ?

I don't know what does this sentence mean too because those question are copied from my grammar exercise book.

Initially , i guess this context (You had better (see) the doctor earily.) mean " You should go and see the doctor now earily= the earier , the better. " In chinese is "你應該早d去睇醫生".So can i say " You had better see the doctor earily." ? I don't now how to express my view on it. I hope you can understand what i want to say^^.

Participle:

5) I hope you don't mind my looking at your newspaper. This type o structure is very common. I hope you don't mind- this part is a complete sentence. My looking at your newspaper is a participle clause describing the action.

More i.e….

* I caught him just in time, [saving the trouble to call him again].

* She woke up early, [expecting her mother to arrive]

The bracketed segments are clauses which modify the preceding contents.

Do you mean the bracketed segments are used to modify the whole meaning of the preceding sentence? Or just modify the action that subject(She) does?As my teacher tell me participle phrase is formed as following:

I catch him just in time. I save the troble to call him again. <<Then we can combine this two sentence by omitting the Subject (I) and changing the verb(catch) to present participle (catching). That's why i think that the segments are no connection with the preceding sentence.

Thank for your help . It is very useful .
participle

2)The editorial [… ] will appear in tomorrow's newspaper. A. writing.<< why it is wrong. Can't I refer "editorial" as an adjective and "writing" as a noun? B. being writen (answer)
C. "blank". The correct answer is C.

Why nothing is needed?

3) During the battle some soldiers were wound and some soldiers were missing.

wounded is an adjective , then is "missing" an adjective too?



Gerund (2)
7) They are discussing the problem of [ ] to the moon.
A. a man's flying
B. men's flying
Isn't it "man's flying"?

The answer from my grammar book is B "men's flying but I don't know why the answer is it.

Thnak a lots.
"An editorial" is an article that a newspaper company gives as the company's opinion. It best fits your sentence. "Editorial writing" is how to write an editorial. "The editorial being written" is an noun phrase to mean "that the editorial is/was written". Neither "the editorial writing" nor "the editorial being written" makes sense when they are used in your sentence.

Yes "missing" is an adjective. "The girl is missing" means nobody can know where the girl is.

"Man" without THE or A is "human beings" or "Homo sapiens". I think it best fits your sentence. If you choose "men", it should be like "THE men's flying".

paco
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participle

The editorial will appear in tomorrow's newspaper.

Why nothing is needed? An editorial, as explained by others, is a piece of written material. Thus, this is already a complete sentence.

3) During the battle some soldiers were wounded and some soldiers were missing.

Very often, verbs are used as adjective. They can be in past and present participle. i.e.

She was very pleased with her exam result. There are verbs which are used in passive voice and are often considered as adjectives; such as:

Excited- She is very excited about her trip to . Her trip to was very exciting. Explanation: 1) She was made “excited” by her going to . She was the recipient of the action. 2) “Exciting” is used as adjective to describe her trip.

Exhilarated, Interested, Upset, etc……and many others.

He was tired from walking up 10 flights of stairs.

Walking up 10 flights of stairs is very tiring.

Hope it’s more clear to you now!
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