Dear Teachers

Please, help me with these two sentences

E.g. Yesterday we ---------- all books by 7 o'clock in the evening.

a) recieved b) had recieved

Well, this sentence confused me because we have here "yesterday" and "by".

Jane ------------- thew lawyer's face carefully before she answered his question.

a) had studied b) studied

Thanks beforehand

Regards

Nata...
1 2
Hi Nata,

1. received - Yesterday is a certain time in the past. You can use past simple only.

2. had studied. However, "studied" is also fine because the word "before" is already mentioned.

Regards
Hallo Emotion: smile

well, thanks but what about the preposition "by" in the first sentence? Do not we use the perfect with it?

Regards

Nata...
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Hi,

You shouldn't refer to the preposition "by" as an indication for using past perfect automatically.

If a certain time in the past is used in a sentence (yesterday, last week, last year, etc.), you should use past simple only.

Regards
aha.

Okie:) got it

Thanks a lot

Regards

Natal...
I disagree.

By 7 p.m. -- A time in the past.

The books were received prior to that time in the past.

That makes the past perfect completely appropriate, if the writer wants to indicate that that the act of receiving was fully completed before 7 p.m.

I also think that that in the second one, the use of "before" makes the use of the past perfect redundant.

I would use "had received" for the first one and "studied" for the second one.
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Hallo GG

Thank you a lot for your comment

Regards

Nata...
Natalli.E.g. Yesterday we -- all books by 7 o'clock in the evening.
a) recieved b) had recieved
Well, this sentence confused me because we have here "yesterday" and "by".
Jane -- thew lawyer's face carefully before she answered his question.
a) had studied b) studied
Nat,

I use this approach and it seems to work for me.

Look at the pattern and determine if a past sentence contains any time marker. Words like "Before" and "after" are suggestives of past perfect possibilities.

For the first one - "Yerterday" is no doubt a past time marker. The contexts may suggest the books were not all shipped or sent at once and thus arrived at various times. You may have received the first parcel containing the partial book shipment at 6 pm and just a few before 7 pm - you had received the second partial. This is academically a classic case of past perfect. Of cource, the arguement is that if the contexts are easily understood, there is no necessity for past perfect, and I agree to a certain extent. But I do want to emphesize grammar is the backbone of any language and culture and we should keep that in mind. Are you still confused?
Hallo Emotion: smile

Thanks for your comment.

Well, so you mean the first one "recieved" and the second one "had studied"?

Regards

Nata...
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