Hi,

As far as I know there are three sacred books in Abrahamic religions which are Judaism, Christianity and Islam and these books are Torah, Bible, and, Koran. According to the followers of these books their books are word of God. I have some questions about names of these books.

What is difference between Bible and Gospel? As far as I know there are many Gospels like Gospel of Mathew and Gospel of John.

Likewise Jews have Torah and Tulmud. What's the difference?

What is the difference between New Testament and Old Testament? Do these Testaments relate to Jews or Christians?
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What is difference between Bible and Gospel? As far as I know there are many Gospels like Gospel of Mathew and Gospel of John.
The Bible is the entire collection of canonical writings held sacred by Christians. It is divided into the Old Testament and the New Testament. In contrast, a gospel is essentially a written work which tells of the life of Jesus and claims to quote his teachings. The four canonical gospels (Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John) make up the first books of the New Testament in the Bible. There are many other gospels, such as the Gospels of Thomas, Peter, Judas, Mary Magdalene, and James, which are not considered canon by the vast majority of Christians and not included in the Bible.
Likewise Jews have Torah and Tulmud. What's the difference?
The Torah, also known as the Pentateuch or the Five Books of Moses, is the first five books of the the Hebrew Bible (the Tanakh): Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy. The Talmud is a collection of Jewish laws and traditions, the final completed version of which dates back to around 500 A.D.
What is the difference between New Testament and Old Testament? Do these Testaments relate to Jews or Christians?
The Old Testament is the first major section of the Bible. It consists of the sacred books dating back to before the birth of Jesus of Nazareth. It is essentially the same collection of works as the the Hebrew Bible (although arranged and numbered slightly differently); however, the term "Old Testament" is considered offensive to many Jews as it denotes a belief that the covenant between God and the Hebrew people as outlined within it was superseded by a newer covenant as outlined in the New Testament. Jews have traditionally referred to the collection the "Tanakh" (an anagram taken from the three parts which the Jews divide the collection into: the Torah, Nevi'im, and Ketuvim). However, because that term is largely unknown to the general public, academics have taken to calling the collection the "Hebrew Bible" as a neutral term.

The New Testament is the second and final major division of the Bible. It is a central element of Christianity, but holds no importance in Judaism. It consists of the four Gospels, stories of the Apostles (called "Acts"), and a series of letters (called "Espistles") which outline everything from the meaning of Jesus' life and works and the new covenant with God, to Apocalyptic prophecies.

So, allow me to summarize:

  • The Hebrew Bible is important to both Jews and Christians. Jews call it the Tanakh; Christians call it the Old Testament.
  • The Torah is the first five books of the Hebrew Bible. Christians do not use the name "Torah".
  • The Bible consists of the Hebrew Bible (Old Testament) with the addition of the the New Testament.
  • The Jews place no importance on the New Testament, instead considering it heretical.
  • The first four books of the New Testament are the canonical gospels.
  • Gospels are narratives of Jesus' life and teachings.
  • The Talmud is a written collection of Jewish law and tradition. It holds no importance to Christians.
Hi,

YoungCalifornian, thank you so much for your very extensive and understandable answer. I still have one more question to ask which I forgot yesterday.

Which one of these books are said to be word of God by their followers? Your answer tells me that Gospels are not word of God because they were written about the life Jesus by his fellows.
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Which one of these books are said to be word of God by their followers? Your answer tells me that Gospels are not word of God because they were written about the life Jesus by his fellows.
Generally, none of the Bible is considered to be the literal word of God by Jews or Christians in the same way that Muslims consider the Qur'an to be. It is accepted that all the books of the Bible were written by men (although almost always with divine inspiration). Because there are many sects of Judaism and (especially) Christianity, many different interpretations of scripture exist. At one end of the spectrum are those who consider all the events and quotes found in the Bible (including those of Jesus and God) to be literal in their descriptions, as God would not allow such misrepresentations of his message to exist. On the other end are those who consider the historical accuracy of the Bible to be much less important than the messages and morals contained therein.

Based on my experience, I would say that mentions of "the word of God" by Jews and Christians tend to be references to the quotes directly attributed to either God or Jesus in the Bible. Some may use the phrase to describe the Bible as a whole, but even then I would venture to guess they mean it in a more figurative way.

P.S. I noticed that I misspelled "epistles" in my last post.
Hi,

But what about Ten Commandments? I have heard that Moses received those commandments directly from God. Does Totah contain those Ten Commandments? I have also heard that no one knows the place of Moses's grave and my friend who is muslim told me that angels buried him themselves. Perhaps you know the exact details. Once again thank you so much for such a detailed answer.

Vijay
But what about Ten Commandments? I have heard that Moses received those commandments directly from God. Does Totah contain those Ten Commandments? I have also heard that no one knows the place of Moses's grave and my friend who is muslim told me that angels buried him themselves. Perhaps you know the exact details.
You are correct that the Bible states that Moses received the stone tablets listing the Ten Commandments directly from God. As I said above, there are many passages in the Bible which are purported to be direct quotes of either God or Jesus. The thing to remember though is that there are a great many interpretations of Biblical texts as a result of the many sects and denominations of Christianity and Judaism. Also, the Ten Commandments are indeed contained with the Torah (which is traditionally thought to have been written by Moses). They are mentioned first in Exodus, and then again in Deuteronomy.

Regarding the ultimate fate of Moses, Jews and Christians place no special significance on his death (other than the fact he was said to have lived to 120 years of age). Nor do they hold any specific beliefs as to where he was buried or the manner of it. As for the Muslim tradition regarding his death and the involvement of angels, my understanding is that no mention of such events exists in the actual Qur'an. However, according to the Hadith (Islamic traditions related to the teachings and examples set by Muhammed), Moses met and initially overcame the angel of death before finally agreeing to die. I've never heard mention of him being buried by angels, but I am not nearly as familir with Muslim traditions and beliefs as Judeo-Christian ones. One important thing to remember, regarding differences of belief in the Abrahamic religions, is that Muslims believe the Old and New Testaments are corrupted texts. Thus, while the Qur'an makes mention of many of the same people, places, and events originally described in the Bible, they are rewritten and contain different elements.



If you're really interested in this subject, I would suggest you watch the classic Hollywood film The Ten Commandments (1956). Despite its name, it's really the story of Moses' life (according mostly to Jewish and Christian belief), climaxing with his presentation of the Ten Commandments to the Hebrews.

Lastly, feel free to ask more questions. I consider myself to be agnostic, but Biblical and religious history fascinates me.
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Dear YoungCalifornian,

I have seen Ten Commandments along with many other religious movies. I'm obliged to you for the information you provided me. I will continue this thread whenever I have another question. Thank you

Vijay
You're welcome.
Dear YoungCalifornian,

Is this true that when Moses (PBUH) and his people reached the Nile there was river on one side and on the other there was approaching army of Pharaoh, at this his people cried out, ''O Moses! Wasn't there any graveyard in Egypt that you brought us to die here''?

May G-D always keep you Young.Emotion: smile
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