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Navigating landscapes that are varied, that offer trials and occasional conflicts is more helpful to creativity than hanging out in landscapes that pose no challenge to our senses and our minds.


This is the sentence taken from one text book and I know that that are varied and that offer trials and occasional conflicts modify landscapes and then I was wondering if we can use a comma that way or there should be and like ...varied, and that offer...and the and is omitted like ...varied, (and) that offer...?


What do you native English speakers think? Thank you so much as usual in advance.

Comments  
Hans51 I was wondering if we can use a comma that way

Yes. That device is rather formal and literary, but it is perfectly good. "And" is not so good because that takes away the amplification you get by repeating the thought in more detail. By the way, "and" would take no comma.

Thank you so much.

How about this one without a comma?

Navigating landscapes that are varied that offer trials and occasional conflicts...

Is it okay to rewrite it to the one without a comma for the same meaning and the same function as the one with a comma?

What do you think?

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Hans51How about this one without a comma?

No. You can't nest "that" clauses that way.

Thank you so much. Here is one more question.

Think about something that you bought that you never ended up using.

Here in the sentence there are two defining relative clauses: one that you bought and the other that you never ended up using.

Do the two relative that-clauses modify something without a comma?

And then what is the difference between landscapes that are varied, that offer trials and occasional conflicts and Think about something that you bought that you never ended up using.

What do you think?

Hans51Do the two relative that-clauses modify something without a comma?

No. We are to think only about the things we never ended up using among those things we have bought, not among things we found or received as gifts.

Hans51And then what is the difference between landscapes that are varied, that offer trials and occasional conflicts and Think about something that you bought that you never ended up using.

The comma makes the second part an expansion of the first. Without the comma, the second part modifies the noun that has been modified already by the first. At this point, we need a grammarian.

If you make it "Think about something that you bought, that you never ended up using", you have nonsense because you don't want something that you both didn't use and bought. You want something that you bought which you didn't use.

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