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Summer school is (b) classes offered at a university over the summer, which high school students can enroll in to cover advanced material, or college students can enroll in to cover material that they don't expect to have time for during the actual term.

... and not unknown in Britain. Cambridge Physics had a mandatory summer term when I were a lad.

Colin Rosenthal Sabbagh's Second Law: The biggest problem with communication is the illusion that it has occurred.
Actually, after five years in the US, I probably do know the difference, but I doubt I could distinguish between an Unofficial Transcript and a Summa Cum Laudæ(a,ae,?),

Well then: A transcript is merely a listing of all the classes that one has taken at a particular school, together with the grades (marks) that one has received for each. An unofficial transcript is one that is not issued and certified by an officer of the school, of course.

"Summa cum Laude" is Latin for 'with Highest Honor', and is a designation on the diplomas of students who graduate from college with outstanding academic achievement. It's a step higher than "Magna cum Laude" = 'with Great Honor', which is itself a step higher than "cum Laude" = 'with Honor'.
and I once got a terrible flaming on usenet for failing to spot the distinction between a Junior High School and a High School.

High School is what one attends roughly between the ages of 15 and 18 - generally the four years before college. Junior High School is the three (in some places, two or four) years before High School. The "school" is optional in "junior high" but not in "high school".

-Aaron J. Dinkin
Dr. Whom
Students: Are you brave enough to let our tutors analyse your pronunciation?
Even with a four-year undergraduate degree, rather than three, would ... or would they be expected to do an MSc first?

Entering straight into a PhD program is frequently done - for instance, one of my roommates majored in Chemistry and ... Master's after the second year for doing somewhat more work; are they more likely to be separate programs Over There.

In my day (40 years ago) they were. An MSc would take about a year or so for the work, and maybe another 6 months for writing the report, which would typically be a spare-time activity because the researcher would have gone on to something else: either a job or a PhD. I wrote the majority of my PhD thesis after I had started work. Doing an MSc first, even if the PhD was a follow-on in the same subject area, would push the doctorate out to 4 or possibly 5 years. In fact the only two researchers during my time who had taken an MSc first were in their 30s, and had returned to get a doctorate after a decade or so in industry. One was sponsored by his employer.
One advantage of doing an MSc first was (IMO) to put a toe in the water and check that the subject area was suitable for a doctorate. I knew several people who had spent 4 years getting nowhere with their research, and who left to take a job without gaining any postgraduate degree of any kind. I guess I was lucky, for I was the very first PhD student of a newly-appointed reader, and there was no way he was going to let his first student fail!
I mean, gosh, I entered into a PhD program in linguistics without any additional coursework (though a year after completing my AB), and less than a quarter of my undergraduate coursework was in linguistics.

Genious, as they say, will out. In my case it's taking its time, but I live in hopes.

wrmst rgrds
Robin Bignall
Hertfordshire
England
Genious, as they say, will out.

Doc, you've been reading too much of P. Schultz's stuff.
Skitt (in Hayward, California)
www.geocities.com/opus731/
Genious, as they say, will out.

Doc, you've been reading too much of P. Schultz's stuff.

Can one read too much of the Grammer Genious? Answers on a postcard, please, and while I'm waiting, I'll reset my spell checker so that it does not ignore capitalised Misteaks.

wrmst rgrds
Robin Bignall
Hertfordshire
England
Students: We have free audio pronunciation exercises.
Aaron J. Dinkin filted:
and I once got a terrible flaming on usenet for failing to spot the distinction between a Junior High School and a High School.

High School is what one attends roughly between the ages of 15 and 18 - generally the four years before ... places, two or four) years before High School. The "school" is optional in "junior high" but not in "high school".

Not if the name of the school is included...our school fight song referred in every line to "Silver High"..
There's some inconsistency as to whether 9th grade is high school or junior high...on the one hand, the four-year standard says these kids are "high-school freshmen"; on the other, their classes are on the same campus as the 7th- and 8th-graders (personal experience, which varies from town to town)...there's a much clearer distinction between "elementary school" and junior high; the transition from 6th to 7th grade is marked not only by a change of buildings but by having a different teacher every hour of the day instead of one that stays with you for all subjects..
(ObRandomObservation: my junior high school athletic team was the Broncos, high school was the Colts, college was the Mustangs...in Silver City, one never strayed far from a corral)..r
There's some inconsistency as to whether 9th grade is high school or junior high...on the one hand, the four-year standard ... by having a different teacher every hour of the day instead of one that stays with you for all subjects..

It does indeed vary from town to town, as well as probably more importantly from region to region, and between public and private schools. In my understanding and experience, high school is 9th through 12th grades and all on one campus; junior high (in the "different teacher every hour" sense - I went to a K-8 private school so I don't know how the public schools in my area divided it) is 6th through 8th.

Junior high is also called "middle school". I think this is only true of public junior high schools; at least, I can't think of a private-school setup that I would refer to as "middle school".
-Aaron J. Dinkin
Dr. Whom
Aaron J. Dinkin filted:
Junior high is also called "middle school". I think this is only true of public junior high schools; at least, I can't think of a private-school setup that I would refer to as "middle school".

As noted, these things vary...there were no "middle school" when I would have gone to such things, but my brother, only four years behind me in the sequence, went to one...it represented 5th and 6th grades, I think; 7th through 9th (with an asterisk by the 9th) was still junior high..r
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It does indeed vary from town to town, as well as probably more importantly from region to region, and between ... K-8 private school so I don't know how the public schools in my area divided it) is 6th through 8th.[/nq]In New York City (Largest Public School System in America) I think during much of the 20th century you had ninth grade being shared by both high schools and junior high schools that is, the person going into ninth grade had a choice of whether to start high school or finish junior high school. I think "intermediate schools" may have been a later development than "junior high schools", and part of the general trend nationally towards the use of "middle schools" starting and ending with younger grades.

I believe that nowadays the junior high school model has largely been transformed into a middle school model in New York. For example, when I was a kid the local public junior high school was Ditmas Junior High School, running from 7th through 9th grades; sometime during the mid-'80s or later it had become Ditmas Intermediate School, running from 6th through 8th:
http://schools.nycenet.edu/region7/is62 /
Junior high is also called "middle school". I think this is only true of public junior high schools

Although in some places, like New York City, the two terms imply different grade ranges, at least from a historical perspective.
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