Geographically, Malaysia is surrounded by water; South China Sea, Malacca Strait, Sulu Sea and Celebes Sea. Peninsular Malaysia is bordered by the South China Sea on the east side and by Malacca Strait on the west coast. Sabah and Sarawak which are located on the north and northwest side of the island of Borneo are bordered by the South China Sea along its northwest coast, and by the Sulu Sea and Celebes Sea at the northeast section of Sabah (Figure 1.1). During recent decades, marine operation activities at Malaysian Seas such as commercial ships, offshore oil operation and fisheries are growing rapidly and have played an important role in the development of the Malaysian economy. Due to the afore mentioned facts, understanding ocean currents become one of important aspect to support the marine operation in Malaysian waters.

Ocean currents can be classified into two types of flow, surface current and subsurface current depending on what the factor that powers them. However, people are better acquainted with the sea’s surface than with its depth. According to Digby et al (2000), there are many factor that driven the sea surface current such as density gradient, Coriolis force , wind forcing and tidal forcing. But the most important factor is wind which induce wind-drift current and geostrophic current at sea surface (see Pinet,2006 for review)

Since the advent of satellite altimetry, researchers have paid more attention to investigate ocean current from space. Capable to provide continuous global coverage of the dynamic ocean topography and magnitude of surface wind speed which leads to the geostrophic (Dobslaw et al.,2004) and wind-drift current (Digby et al., 2000) respectively at sea surface make this technology becomes an obvious choice for studying a global-scale ocean current from space. Although the accuracy of this space-based technique is not able to compete the in-situ measurement, this technique appears quite promising for surface current study and furthermore, more understanding about the ocean circulation.

But, challenges still exist in monitoring the ocean current and circulation from satellite altimetry. Over the last few years, oceanographers have given more attention to obtain the high-precision and high resolution ocean dynamic topography (DOT), the important key point of detecting geostrophic current from space (Zhang, 2007). Due to large uncertainty of marine geoid especially when derived solely from satellite altimetry (Le Tron et al., 2001), only poor quality of dynamic ocean topography can be deduced from altimetric height. However, with advent of the new the earth gravity field model from high accuracy satellite gravity mission such as GRACE, CHAMP and GOCE gives, there is a good chance to obtain high-precision and high resolution ocean dynamic topography (absolute ocean dynamic topography)

The goal of this study is to derive surface current that is induced by wind power, geostrophic current plus wind-drift current, derived from absolute ocean dynamic topography and wind magnitude respectively. In order to achieve this goal, altimetry data (sea level anomaly and wind speed) from four satellite mission TOPEX, ERS-2, JASON-1, and ENVISAT from year 2000 until year 2008 will be used to derive surface current in Malaysian Seas. Mean Dynamic Topography, deduced from EGM 2008 earth gravity field model result from CHAMP mission and DNSC08 mean sea surface model will use to derive absolute ocean dynamic topography. The study will be focused at South China Sea, Malacca Strait, Sulu Sea and Celebes Sea area. All the altimeter data processing will be used Radar Altimeter Database System (RADS), developed by Delft University in the frame of the SEAMERGES project, an EU funded project (AUNP).
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Geographically, Malaysia is surrounded by water; the South China Sea, the Malacca Strait, the Sulu Sea and the Celebes Sea. Peninsular Malaysia is bordered by the South China Sea on the east side and by the Malacca Strait on the west coast. Sabah and Sarawak which are located on the north and northwest side of the island of Borneo are bordered by the South China Sea along its northwest coast, and by the Sulu Sea and Celebes Sea at the northeast section of Sabah (Figure 1.1). During recent decades, marine operation activities at Malaysian Seas such as commercial ships, offshore oil operation and fisheries have been growing rapidly and have played an important role in the development of the Malaysian economy. Due to these facts, understanding ocean currents become one of important aspect to support marine operations in Malaysian waters.

Ocean currents can be classified into two types of flow, surface current and subsurface current depending on what factor powers them. However, people are better acquainted with the sea’s surface than with its depths. According to Digby et al (2000), there are many factors that drive the sea surface current such as the density gradient, the Coriolis force, wind forcing and tidal forcing. But the most important factor is wind which induces wind-drift current and geostrophic current at the sea surface (see Pinet,2006 for review)

Since the advent of satellite altimetry, researchers have been able paid more attention to investigate ocean currents from space. The capablity of providing continuous global coverage of the dynamic ocean topography and the magnitude of surface wind speed which leads to the geostrophic (Dobslaw et al.,2004) and wind-drift current (Digby et al., 2000) respectively at sea surface makes this technology becomes an obvious choice for studying a global-scale ocean currents from space. Although the accuracy of this space-based technique is not able to compete with direct on-site the in-situ measurements, this technique it appears quite promising for surface current study and furthermore, more understanding about the ocean's circulation.

But challenges still exist in monitoring the ocean currents and circulation from satellite altimetry. Over the last few years, oceanographers have given more attention to obtain the high-precision and high-resolution ocean dynamic topography (DOT), the important key point most important means of detecting geostrophic current from space (Zhang, 2007). Due to large uncertainty of the marine geoid, especially when derived solely from satellite altimetry (Le Tron et al., 2001), only a poor quality rendering (estimate?) of dynamic ocean topography can be deduced from altimetric height. However, with the advent of the new the earth gravity field model from high accuracy satellite gravity mission such as GRACE, CHAMP and GOCE gives, there is a good chance to obtain high-precision and high-resolution ocean dynamic topography (absolute ocean dynamic topography).

The goal of this study is to derive the surface current that is induced by wind power, geostrophic current plus wind-drift current, derived from absolute ocean dynamic topography and wind magnitude respectively. In order to achieve this goal, altimetry data (sea level anomaly and wind speed) from four satellite missions TOPEX, ERS-2, JASON-1, and ENVISAT from year 2000 until year 2008 will be used to derive surface currents in Malaysian Seas. Mean Dynamic Topography, deduced from EGM 2008 earth gravity field model resulting from the CHAMP mission and the DNSC08 mean sea surface model will be used to derive absolute ocean dynamic topography. The study will be focused at the South China Sea, the Malacca Strait, the Sulu Sea and the Celebes Sea area. All the altimeter data processing will be taken from(?) used the Radar Altimeter Database System (RADS), developed by Delft University in the frame of during (as part of?) the SEAMERGES project, an EU funded project (AUNP).
ok thanks my friends...if you have more time, can you check and give comment for my problem statements below

Surface current is one of the important ocean information and the main component of the ocean circulation. By studying them, it will help scientist to understand their mechanism and time-variable characters, which useful for exploiting ocean resources, disaster prevention and mitigation, ship navigation and etc (Zhang, 20007). However, this aspect has not received enough attention in the region, due to various reasons and constraints. There are two weak points in ocean current study in Malaysia which encourage this study; limitation of data collection and data management problem. Besides of that, the ability of multi-mission satellite altimetry to provide long term sea level and wind data also motivate this study to understand further the seasonal variation of surface current pattern. It is because, the transitions of monsoon which can be distinguish based on the changes in the wind flow patterns, strongly influence the surface current pattern especially at open sea area such as South China Sea.

1.1.1 Data collection



Generally, basic observations of ocean current do exist in Malaysia based on in situ observational such as ship drift, drifting buoy or current metre. But in most cases, observations just cover limited areas and serve certain specific purpose. It is because direct measurement for large scale area is difficult and use costly basin scales. In Malaysia, there are two agencies which are responsible in carrying out the periodic observation on ocean current; Royal Malaysia Navy Hydrographical Department (RMNHD) and Malaysian Meteorological Department (MMD). However, as military agencies, the observation by RMNHD just most designed for military purpose and the data from the observations are not freely accessed by civilians. While, MMD just depends on four stations, Pangkor Island waters, Jetty of UMS, Kota Kinabalu, Mabul Island Semporna and Perhentian Island, Terengganu to collect the ocean current data.The observation can only provide point base data and not represent the offshore area because the stations just installed at coastal area. Thus, this limited information reveals some important features of the ocean circulation. An alternative to overcome those limitations is by using space-based technique to provide large-scale surface current and study the ocean circulation.

1.1.2 Data management



Malaysia is still facing problems with ocean data management. The ocean database in Malaysia can be said as not centralised because the data are normally kept separately in the different institution which carried out the observations. For example, RMNHD and MMD have their own database system. Other industries like oil and gas have also conducted ocean current observation and have developed their own database system. Additionally, the data are not representative for the whole Malaysian seas area and are just designed for their purpose respectively. Although there is effort by the Malaysian National Oceanography Directorate Emotion: nodding to develop MyNODC (Malaysia Oceanographic Data Centre), a database for oceanographic data sharing, but until now the project is still not fully success because of data limitation and data sharing problem between institution and NOD. This situation make difficult for scientist to access the data for another scientific research. To overcome this problem, an oceanographic database based on altimetry technology can be developed as an alternative database or supporting to MyNODC. From the database system, ocean data can be freely extracted, analyzed or printout for another scientific purpose.

Students: Are you brave enough to let our tutors analyse your pronunciation?
Can you please make another try? It is difficult to understand. If you write simpler sentences, it would make more sense.

For example,you write:

Surface current is one of the important ocean information...

But an ocean current is not the same as information. I don't know what you are trying to say here.
Sea surface current...sorry
Surface currents are is one of the important ocean information (surface current is not information - it is a physical phenominon. Please rephrase this.) and the main component of the ocean circulation (deep currents are not?) . By studying them, it will help scientists well better to understand their mechanism and time-variable characteristics, which are useful for modelling the systems. Models can be disigned to understand sustainable exploitation of the ocean's resources, disaster prevention and mitigation, and marine ship navigation and etc (Zhang, 20007). However, this aspect study of the surface currents has not received enough attention in the region, due to various reasons and constraints. In Malaysia there are two weak points in ocean current study impediments which hinder encourage this study - limitations on data collection and its data management problem.

Besides of that, the ability of Multi-mission satellite altimetry can to provide long-term sea level and wind data also motivate this study to which would allow us to understand further the patterns in the seasonal variation of surface currents pattern. It is because, tThe transitions of monsoon, which can be distinguished based on the changes in the wind flow patterns, strongly influence the surface current patterns especially in open sea areas such as South China Sea.

(I am not sure that I correctly interpreted what you were trying to say in the above paragraph, and did not have time to look at the next paragraph. I can work more on it later at your request.)
1.1.1 Data collection

Generally, basic observations of ocean current do exist in Malaysia based on in situ observational such as ship drift, drifting buoy or current metre. But in most cases, observations just cover limited areas and serve certain specific purpose. It is because direct measurement for large scale area is difficult and use costly basin scales. In Malaysia, there are two agencies which are responsible in carrying out the periodic observation on ocean current; Royal Malaysia Navy Hydrographical Department (RMNHD) and Malaysian Meteorological Department (MMD). However, as military agencies, the observation by RMNHD just most designed for military purpose and the data from the observations are not freely accessed by civilians. While, MMD just depends on four stations, Pangkor Island waters, Jetty of UMS, Kota Kinabalu, Mabul Island Semporna and Perhentian Island, Terengganu to collect the ocean current data.The observation can only provide point base data and not represent the offshore area because the stations just installed at coastal area. Thus, this limited information reveals some important features of the ocean circulation. An alternative to overcome those limitations is by using space-based technique to provide large-scale surface current and study the ocean circulation.

1.1.2 Data management

Malaysia is still facing problems with ocean data management. The ocean database in Malaysia can be said as not centralised because the data are normally kept separately in the different institution which carried out the observations. For example, RMNHD and MMD have their own database system. Other industries like oil and gas have also conducted ocean current observation and have developed their own database system. Additionally, the data are not representative for the whole Malaysian seas area and are just designed for their purpose respectively. Although there is effort by the Malaysian National Oceanography Directorate Emotion: nodding to develop MyNODC (Malaysia Oceanographic Data Centre), a database for oceanographic data sharing, but until now the project is still not fully success because of data limitation and data sharing problem between institution and NOD. This situation make difficult for scientist to access the data for another scientific research. To overcome this problem, an oceanographic database based on altimetry technology can be developed as an alternative database or supporting to MyNODC. From the database system, ocean data can be freely extracted, analyzed or printout for another scientific purpose.
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