New 4 Tones Theory

Abstract
Subject : New 4 Tones Theory

Author brief introduction : Cham Lu ,male , born in 1971/10/07 , bachelor degree , graduated from Northwestern Polytechnical university , Xi’an ,China , engaged in research of linguistics , phonetics , Teaching Chinese to foreigners , Network Chinese .

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Key word : Four tones theory , Stress , phonetics , linguistics
Compendium : A new theory is proposed after 10 years of research and analysis of English and Chinese phonetics that applies the 4 tones theory from the old Chinese tone theory to better analyze and understand spoken language. The claim is made that this theory not only enables a fuller understanding of the spoken languages of Chinese and English, but also of any other spoken language. A further claim is that this theory will be an innovative approach that will enable a much needed quickening of the hitherto disappointingly slow evolution of digital speech recognition.

Article Outline

1, The existing status of phonetics
2, Philosophical reasoning of phonetics
3, Phonetics facts
4, New 4 tones theory
5, Energy basis of 4 tones theory
6, Vision on the application of new theory

Contents

1. The existing status of phonetics

Although we are in the 21st century, it is significant that most of the theory of phonetics was founded in 19 century. As we know , composition of English phonetics includes 3 parts: vowels , consonants and stress. However, Chinese phonetics differs in that while it shares vowels, consonants with English, it includes tones as well.
Obviously, the main distinction between Chinese and English phonetics theory is that with English the concept of stress dominates, while with Chinese the concept of tone is paramount. Stress has to do with the qualitative degree of strength or intensity accorded a sound (light to heavy); tone has to do with the qualitative pitch (low to high) and duration (short to long) of a voice. Since both the English and Chinese phonetics are trying to analyze and describe the complex and subtle changes of voiced sounds, what is the relationship between stress and tone ?

2. Philosophy reasoning of phonetics

As stated previously, the most significant difference between Chinese and English phonetics concerns tone versus stress. Why are there different theories for same human voiced sounds produced by identical physiological structure ? What is the connection between these two theories and can this be a unifying concept applicable to all spoken human languages? There must be a linkage based on philosophy reasoning . we can see , for English phonetic , focus on stress and non-stress , it is 2D theory ; for Chinese phonetics , 4 different type of tone are applied , it is 4D theory .It is easy to induct that 4D theory may cover the 2D theory ,but 2D theory never cover 4 D theory . Chinese 4 tone theory quantitive is more complex and accurate comparing with the English stress phonetics which is more qualitative but not .

3. Facts of phonetics

How can we use the 4 tone theory to more meaningfully analyze English pronunciation?
Proposition:
· Use a Chinese syllabic concept - an individual and integrated basic phonetics unit. This approach is different from the English syllabic one; for example, take the word “think”. In pronouncing it in Chinese this word has two syllables; but pronounced in English it has only one syllable.
· Use Chinese pinyin to simulate the similar pronunciation , 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 respectively stand for 1 st tone , 2 nd tone, 3 rd tone , 4 th tone and light tone .

I propose the following approach:

A : English word ’ think’ ,2 syllabus , read as s’en4ke5 in pinyin , stress is in the 1 st syllabus , the 1 st syllabus is 4 th tone ; the 2 nd syllabus is light tone according to Chinese 4 tone theory .
B : English word ’ thinker’ ,2 syllabus , read as s’en1ker5 in pinyin , stress is in the 1 st syllabus , the 1 st syllabus is 1 st tone ; the 2 nd syllabus is light tone according to Chinese 4 tones theory .
C : English sentence ‘”How are you ? “ Using the Chinese ear, consider what is the tone of “how” in the sentence? With the word’s one syllable the stress obviously must be on the only syllable. However, here is where tone can further differentiate this voiced sound: it is 2 nd tone according to Chinese 4 tones theory .
It seems that it is not difficult to interpret the stress conception with the Chinese 4 tone theory. Hopefully this approach may be delineated by traditional scholars ,teachers, or linguistic experts. Note that the Chinese tone analysis can be applied to the English stress phonetics and seems to be an objective, self-evident fact like gravity.

4. New 4 tone theory .

The careful reader may find that I do not give a 3 rd tone example found in the English word pronunciation ,but frequently the light tone is found but is rarely identified by 4 tones theory in Chinese .
After years of research, the Chinese 4 tones theory has not been found to be always, or even mostly, the actual case. The definition of the 3 rd tone is not accurate but with intonation factor , not pure tone .
This interpretation of the 3 rd tone in the “ modern Chinese dictionary “ ( published by 1997 , Commercial publishing company , NO. ISBN 7-100-01777-7/H-519 ) , page 4 ,line 4, states clearly that all the 3 rd tone Chinese character is read by front half 3 rd tone , for instance , 百 年, 海 洋, 水 平 etc. My point is that based on my research the front half 3 rd tone is the light tone or 5 th tone , which is a non-stressed sound in English .

As a whole , The new 4 tone theory means that 1 st tone , 2 nd tone , 4 th tone and 5 th or light tone are the basic 4 tones ; the original 3 rd tone concept is abolished and replaced with light tone ( non-stress tone) used in English phonetics .

Therefore, the unifying connection of Chinese and English phonetics appears to be that stress means stress ( 1 st tone , 2 nd tone , 4 th tone) and non-stress means the 5 th or light tone. Listened to in this way, there appears to be a harmonious unification of Chinese and English phonetics . The new theory is easier and more powerful applied to the interpretation of much phonetic phenomenon occurring in Chinese and English .

5. Energy basis of 4 tones theory

As a results , the new 4 tones have features below :
A. the 1 st tone ---- keep a tone at a certain level ;
B. the 2 nd tone ---- raise a tone ;
C. the 4 th tone -----lower a tone :
D. the light tone ( the 5 th tone) ---the tone wear away naturally

When we speak , we use energy to overcome the drags produced by our oral structure to generate the voice ; to keep a tone at a certain lever , raise a tone or lower a tone ,the energy has to be used to achieve it but the light tone , it is just wore away by drags and no energy used on it . therefore the stress tone ( 1 st , 2 nd ,4 th tone ) are generated because we use energy and force on them ; the light tone is formed with no energy consumed on it and just wore away naturally .
What ever a language is , including English and Chinese , a common foundation and basis are there due to we are humans with same oral structure and configuration ,which is a cornerstone of 4 basic tones . so 4 basic tones shall be applied to all of them .


6. Vision on application of new theory

The West in general, and
in particular, has invested huge sums of money on digital human voice recognition to develop an passably accurate product. This project began very early in the last century but to date the results have been disappointing – no real breakthrough approach seems to have been found. The claim made in this paper is that the root cause of this failure is the fact that the English phonetics theory is not sufficiently subtle to map the myriad complexities of the human voiced sounds. English phonetics is fundamentally flawed without the Chinese tone focus. The wrong theory always lead to failure in practice and that is why many Chinese linguists deeply believe that the breakthrough is to be made in Chinese. The new 4 tones theory is a good basis and direction for the future natural success of human voice processing and recognition and language study and teaching .

【 Reference Book 】
1. 《 Modern Chinese Dictionary 》 published in 1997 by Commercial Publishing Company , ID : ISBN 7-100-01777-7/H-519 .
2. Zhou Youguang ( 1961 )《 Introduction of Chinese character reform 》 Culture Revolution Publishing Company .
3. Wang Lijia ( 1998 )《 21 Century Chinese phonetics Research 》 Beijing University Publishing Company
4. Li Jinxi ( 1934 )《 The outline of Chinese Movement 》 published by Commercial Publishing Company
1. Why reinvent the wheel?

English phonetics is different from that of Mandarin or that of timbuktu. The syllable structure in English is different from, say, that in Hindi. Given phonetics is specific to a particular language, can we come up with global phonetics? That's what you appear to say, appear because you critcize that English phonetics does not consider Chinese one. As long as you say that "understanding chinese tones help one understand pitch patterns in spoken English", I am with you.

Luciano Canepari has come up with "Natural phonetics and tonetics method". His way of dealing with all natural languages (AmE, Mandarin, Hindi, etc) is far superior to what you claim. After William Smalley, he is the one who tells students to to practice pitch discrimination, etc. He also uses 'tones' in three bands (high, mid, low) of the pitch range to transcribe pitch in any language.

2. William Smalley in his "Manual of Articulatory Phonetics" got many lessons about 'tones' that you discuss about. For instance, he uses a gibberish word "mopisu", and asks the student to pronounce based on the tone for each syllable. He got other exercises wherein you hear recordings of gibberish words and sentences and discriminate the tune and tone.
I cannt comment on your theory, but on the English grammar and style that you use.

First, I would spell out "four" - and think of different titles
Four Tones Theory
Four Tone Theory of Phonetics.
The Four Dimensions of Phonetics; a New Theory
luogwjzaAuthor brief introduction : Cham Lu ,male , born in 1971/10/07,bachelor degree , graduated from Northwestern Polytechnical university , Xi’an ,China , engaged in research of linguistics , phonetics , Teaching Chinese to foreigners , Network Chinese .
Author's bio: Cham Lu was born 1971/10/07 in Xi’an, China, received a bachelor's degree from Northwestern Polytechnical University, and is currently engaged in researching linguistics and phonetics, teaching Chinese to foreigners, and networking in the Chinese community.
luogwjzaCompendium :A new theory is proposed after 10 years of research and analysis of English and Chinese phonetics that applies the 4 tones theory from the old Chinese tone theory to better analyze and understand spoken language. The claim is made that this theory not only enables a fuller understanding of the spoken languages of Chinese and English, but also of any other spoken language. A further claim is that this theory will be an innovative approach that will enable a much needed quickening of the hitherto disappointingly slow evolution of digital speech recognition.
I cannot understand what you say in the first sentence - How can you propose a new theory that applies the same new theory?

I porpose a new version:

After 10 years of research and analysis of English and Chinese phonetics, we propose a new theory, based on the old Chinese tone theory, which can be used to analyze and understand spoken language. We claim that the theory is universal; it can be applied to languages other than English and Chinese. Also, it represents an innovative and practical approach that has the potential to advance the state of the art in digital voice recognition.
Students: We have free audio pronunciation exercises.
" He also uses 'tones' in three bands (high, mid, low) of the pitch range to transcribe pitch in any language "; what i know is 4 is different with 3 . i try to use 4 tones theory to interpreter all the natural lauguage , you mentioned the 3 band pitch , there must be somthing wrong . what i try to say is 4 new band theory with plent of Chinese and english practice . I am a Chinese , i am familiar with the Chinese , how can you use three bands theory to interpreter our Language ?
Thanks , that make sence to me , i will revise my article accordingly .
AlpheccaStarsI cannt comment on your theory, but on the English grammar and style that you use.First, I would spell out "four" - and think of different titlesFour Tones Theory Four Tone Theory of Phonetics.The Four Dimensions of Phonetics; a New Theory
luogwjzaAuthor brief introduction : Cham Lu ,male , born in 1971/10/07,bachelor degree , graduated from Northwestern Polytechnical university , Xi’an ,China , engaged in research of linguistics , phonetics , Teaching Chinese to foreigners , Network Chinese .
Author's bio: Cham Lu was born 1971/10/07 in Xi’an, China, received a bachelor's degree from Northwestern Polytechnical University, and is currently engaged in researching linguistics and phonetics, teaching Chinese to foreigners, and networking in the Chinese community.
luogwjzaCompendium :A new theory is proposed after 10 years of research and analysis of English and Chinese phonetics that applies the 4 tones theory from the old Chinese tone theory to better analyze and understand spoken language. The claim is made that this theory not only enables a fuller understanding of the spoken languages of Chinese and English, but also of any other spoken language. A further claim is that this theory will be an innovative approach that will enable a much needed quickening of the hitherto disappointingly slow evolution of digital speech recognition.
I cannot understand what you say in the first sentence - How can you propose a new theory that applies the same new theory? I porpose a new version:After 10 years of research and analysis of English and Chinese phonetics, we propose a new theory, based on the old Chinese tone theory, which can be used to analyze and understand spoken language. We claim that the theory is universal; it can be applied to languages other than English and Chinese. Also, it represents an innovative and practical approach that has the potential to advance the state of the art in digital voice recognition.

Thanks , that make sence to me , i will revise my article accordingly .
Students: Are you brave enough to let our tutors analyse your pronunciation?
luogwjza" He also uses 'tones' in three bands (high, mid, low) of the pitch range to transcribe pitch in any language "; what i know is 4 is different with 3 . i try to use 4 tones theory to interpreter all the natural lauguage , you mentioned the 3 band pitch , there must be somthing wrong . what i try to say is 4 new band theory with plent of Chinese and english practice . I am a Chinese , i am familiar with the Chinese , how can you use three bands theory to interpreter our Language ?
Every speaker has a pitch range: split that range into 3 intervals. That's what I meant by "3 bands". In each band, you can have all kinds of tones: rising, falling, level, circumflex, subterflex, etc.