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What would you say to a student who asked you to explain the difference in meaning between these pairs of sentences?

a) I bought a newspaper this morning.

I've bought a newspaper this morning.

b) She speaks French.

She's speaking French.

c) Did you remember to sign the letter?

Do you remember signing the letter?

d) He didn't need to call the doctor.

He needn't have called the doctor.

Please can you help with this. Thanks very much.
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a) I bought a newspaper this morning.it's no longer the morning

I've bought a newspaper this morning.it's still in the morning

b) She speaks French.she can speak French, she knows the language

She's speaking French.right now

c) Did you remember to sign the letter?didn't you forget (then) to sign the letter

Do you remember signing the letter?do you have the memory of signing the letter

d) He didn't need to call the doctor.there was no need for him to call the doctor at that time

He needn't have called the doctor.he called the doctor (at that time) but there was no need for him to do so
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c) Did you remember to sign the letter?

I believe this, strangely enough, translates simply into, 'Did you sign the letter?'
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Hi guys,

Another brief comment.

c) Did you remember to sign the letter? This has the suggestion that the speaker thinks I may have forgotten to sign it.

Did you sign the letter? Just asks a factual question. Perhaps the speaker thinks I didn't want to sign it.

Best wishes, Clive
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Okay. Yeh, that's important. It does have a particular kind of backdrop to it, of the same sort as, 'Did you forget to sign the letter?' which, likewise, would not translate simply into, 'Did you not sign the letter?'

Pieanne, I'm gonna blame you for confusing my brain by equating 'did you remember' with: didn't you forget