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Non-finite clauses have the same tense as the finite verb in the main clause.

Since the beginning, the company has grown rapidly, expanding into the U.K.

This would mean that 'expanding' would be 'has expanded', correct?

But it just seems to me that it more means this:

Since the beginning, the company has grown rapidly, and is expanding into the U.K.

Thanks
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English 1b3Non-finite clauses have the same tense as the finite verb in the main clause.
Only "sort of". Non-finite by definition means having no tense. These clauses more or less take their cue from the main clause, but semantics should also be considered.

has been expanding is another possibility for your example.

CJ
CalifJimbut semantics should also be considered

Thank you.

So we have to consider semantics here then, right? That is, it is a little ambiguous, so we should use 'having been a Pilot if he no longer is a Pilot?

Being a Pilot, I travelled the world a lot.
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English 1b3so we should use 'having been a Pilot if he no longer is a Pilot?

Being a Pilot, I travelled the world a lot.
I don't believe it's a requirement, but I would use "having been" under those conditions; yes.

CJ
Thanks, CJ. Most helpful to know.

I have an unrelated question that I hope you can answer for me. I won't start a new thread, as I already have done so. I remember you telling me a while ago that we don't use the simple present for normal verbs when we want to express the action happening now. You said we use the progressive tense. Can you explain, please, why the simple present seems to express an action here then?

Before the decade is over, David sends Mike's discovery over to researches and scientists for testing.

Thank you (I've asked you because perhaps my intial understanding was incorrect as a reulst of my misunderstanding you in the past...)

English 1b3Can you explain, please, why the simple present seems to express an action here then?
As an isolated sentence, it's wrong. It should be:

Before the decade was over, David sent Mike's discovery over to researchers ... for testing.

Maybe you found this in the context of a longer story, and the author is just trying to make the story more exciting by substituting present tense for past tense. This comes under the category of style rather than grammar, in my opinion.
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Grammatically, my point remains the same. If you have a verb like "jump" or "walk" or whatever, you use the simple present to indicate the habit of jumping, walking, or whatever, and the progressive form to indicate the on-going action of jumping, walking, or whatever. For example, you don't have the correct use of these tenses if you are writing a letter and the phone rings and this conversation occurs:

-- What do you do now? [WRONG]

-- I write a letter to my sister. [WRONG]

It has to be:
-- What are you doing now?
-- I'm writing a letter to my sister.

As habits, however:
-- What do you do with all your spare time these days?
-- I write letters to my sister.
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If you want to use the stylistic device discussed above, you'll have to tell a whole story, and you'd better make it exciting or there won't be much point in using this tense switching technique!

Last Friday, guess what happened! I got to the store and what happened? [TENSE SWITCH] I'm standing there at the check-out aisle and I realize I haven't got my wallet. I go up to the cashier and I tell her the problem. So she gets the manager. The manager comes over and ... ... ... and the police take me away and put me in jail!

Obviously, this has nothing to do with habits. It has to do with relating past events in a way that makes them more vivid.

Emotion: smile

CJ
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CalifJimMaybe you found this in the context of a longer story, and the author is just trying to make the story more exciting by substituting present tense for past tense. This comes under the category of style rather than grammar, in my opinion

Thank you so very much. Actually, the original was from a documentary, and it used the present perfect. So is the present perfect correct, while the present simple is only correct if it is referring to a past event (the historic present)?

Before the decade is over, David has sent Mike's discovery over to researchers for testing

CalifJimMaybe you found this in the context of a longer story, and the author is just trying to make the story more exciting by substituting present tense for past tense. This comes under the category of style rather than grammar, in my opinion


OK, right...The Historic Present, right? So this is an exception? That is, the present simple can show an action, not a habit, in this instance?
English 1b3So is the present perfect correct, while the present simple is only correct if it is referring to a past event (the historic present)?

Before the decade is over, David has sent Mike's discovery over to researchers for testing
Everything is "front-shifted" when you use this rhetorical device. Here's the original that's being front-shifted:

Before the decade was over, David had sent Mike's discovery ...

It's not a question of what's correct and what's not correct and different rules for present and different rules for present perfect. You're making this all about 100 times more complicated than it is. Emotion: smile
English 1b3That is, the present simple can show an action, not a habit, in this instance?
Yes. But be sure that you keep in mind that the action shown is not a present action, and that this is a special stylistic device -- not the central meaning or usage of the simple present.

CJ
Great, I've got it now.

Botht versions (the present perfect and present simple) are examples of using the Historic present (that is front-shifting as you called it).

What would be the difference in meaning between 'has sent' and sends' in this case? Different meaning or just the perfect aspect is making the time sequence clearer?
CalifJimYou're making this all about 100 times more complicated than it is.
What's new/tell me something I don't know Emotion: smile
CalifJimBut be sure that you keep in mind that the action shown is not a present action
But it can be can't it, say, in commentary? He passes the ball to Mike. And in Newspaper headlines?
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