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What's the difference in meaning between in the road and on the road?
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If you are in the US, and you say "in the road" you mean the part the cars drive one. I'll let a Brit explain how it's used in England.
Of course, the meanings will also vary a bit depending on the context (the rest of the sentence).
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Hi Teo,

Depending on context.

"On the road":
1. On the side of the road – you park ‘on the road’, but not ‘in the road’- unless you wanted a ticket.
2. Not at home – he is still on the road, playing with the band.

“In the road”:
‘Drive in the road’ or ‘debris in the road’ seems to be illogical when we think of the surface of the road. That was how I used to think. I now understand the phrase talks about being flanked by the two sides or inside the surrounding scene (i.e., belonging).

Best Regards,
Hoa Thai
"On the road" can also mean "in transit."
I'll be there shortly. I'm on the road now.

It can also be applied to a "frequent traveller" (like a truck driver).
Doesn't Bob get tired of driving cross-country? He's always on the road, even during the holidays.

I'm not familiar with "in the road." The way I use it is you drive on the road, but in your lane. You drive on the right or left side of the road, but you don't drive in (the middle of) the road.
"In the street" means "inside the boundaries of the street," while "on the
street" means "along the sides of the street."

This shows "in the street":

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X X X X
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This shows "on the street":

X X X X
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X X X X
Is the difference between on the road and in the road the same as the difference between on the street and in the street?
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Most of the differences are the same, but not all of them. For example, "on the street" cannot be interpreted as "in transit", but "on the road" can. And "on the street" sometimes means "homeless", but "in the street" doesn't.

Your illustration of "on the street" works well in American English if you talk about where someone lives, for example:
I live on Main Street.
But I think the Brits would often use the word 'in' in that sentence.

Teo, you need to give us full sentences so that we can address your questions more specifically!