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Hello,

1.Ought to is already a past tense modal (cf. should) .

I am not able to understand the meaning of the words given in the brackets.
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Hanuman_2000Hello,

1.Ought to is already a past tense modal (cf. should) .

I am not able to understand the meaning of the words given in the brackets.
"Ought to" refers to the present or the future....not to the past. "Ought to have + past participle" would be the past.
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Do you mean "cf. should"? It's "compare with should".

paco