"Jack threw the ball. I also threw the ball." In this quotation, "also" seems to intensify the pronoun "I." If it were operating in its usual capacity as an adverb, the effect would be to say that I threw the ball in addition to some prior action of mine (e.g., "I hit the ball. I also threw the ball.")

Since in the first quotation the "also" intensifies the pronoun, is this a case of an adverb operating adjectivally?
"Also" is what some authors call a "focusing adjunct" (rather than an "intensifier").
When it appears between the subject and the predicate (as it does in "I also threw the ball"), it can usually focus on more than one parf ot the sentence, and the part focused is marked easily in actual speech by means of intonation. In writing we can only hope the context will help us understand where the focus is.

We can use your example: "I also threw the ball."
If we say:
- "I ALSO threw the ball", it will mean that someone else did too.
- "I also THREW the ball" --> I threw the ball in addition to something else I did with respect to the ball (for example, I kicked it).
- "I also threw the BALL" --> I threw the ball and I threw some other object as well.

In all the examples yours and mine "also" is still an adverb. It is not functioning as an adjective.

I hope it helps.

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Thank you for your response.

I'm still left with the question: If "also" FOCUSES on the subject ("Jack threw the ball. I ALSO threw the ball."), and "also" is still an adverb, then what word is "also" MODIFYING here? Since adverbs modify verbs, adjectives, or other adverbs, then how is "also" able to emphasize the subject here?

Practically speaking, if I wanted to diagram the sentence above--"I ALSO threw the ball"--would I put the adverb "also" under "I" or under "threw"?
You would put it under "threw". I is not a verb or adjective or another adverb.
Adverbs modify verbs, so also modifies threw, in the sentence, I also threw the ball.
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As Miriam stated, 'also' is definitely an adverb describing threw. You may replace 'also' in your sentence with other adverbs like often, slowly, rarely, randomly, quickly etc. Even though it may appear that it is enhancing The pronoun I, It is not using any adjective modifications which answer the questions: what kind, which one, how much or whose. Adjectives are the only part of speech that modify a noun or pronoun. I hope this helps.

I may not know how to write properly in British English, but I'm confident I can't understand what you all are talking about. No one is throwing anything in an "also" manner, if it modifies something it is the subject. I disagree with everything I've seen written about also's lexical category. I think it is a compound particle formed from the particle "so" that means "in addition". Sorry to disagree with grammar, but it seems to take a flying leap of faith to transform this into an adverb. "I also fell down."="The way I fell was in addition." Maybe I'm missing something.

I tried to post somewhere else; I'm not sure it worked. "Also" does not modify threw or any other verb. When adverbs modify a verb they modify the nature of the action. Also indicates that another subject participates in the verb, it says nothing about the way the throwing took place. I know that they place it in the adverb category, but it's obviously wrong to do so. It isn't an adverb. Conjunction is closer, but my vote is for particle.

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Maybe you don't realize it, but you are answering a question that was asked more than six years ago.

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car air 68It isn't an adverb.

Sorry. Any dictionary will tell you it's an adverb.

car air 68When adverbs modify a verb they modify the nature of the action.

Only adverbs of manner do that. There are also adverb of place, of time, and of degree.

car air 68I know that they place it in the adverb category, but it's obviously wrong to do so.

"adverb" has always been a catch-all class in traditional grammar. Have trouble classifying a word? Call it an adverb! Emotion: smile