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I have a question.

I thought the participial construction should be with a comma(,) in a formal writining.

but I found out participial constructions without a comma so many times from not only

informal writings but also even formal essays.

for example,

1. The dog busted a tooth playing catch.
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2. They are in a large music hall waiting for a concert to begin.

I considered 'playing catch' and 'waiting for a concert to begin' as participial constructions.

If they are participial constructions, why they don't have commas in even formal

compositons?

Aren't they participial constructions, then?

please help me to solve the problem.
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I have always called these structures clause equivalents, but terminology isn't important. In English, commas are usually used to make the meaning clear. This very often means that the reader is supposed to pause when he sees a comma because that will help him to understand the sentence better.

As a result, clause equivalents often have a comma after them, not so often when the main clause precedes them. Examples:

When turning a corner, I ran into an old friend. But:

I ran into an old friend when turning a corner.

A comma wouldn't be needed in the latter sentence even if there were no clause equivalent:

I ran into an old friend when I was turning a corner.

Similarly, no comma would normally be used in your sentences even if there were no clause equivalents:

They are in a large music hall and they are waiting for a concert to begin.

Since no pause is required before and to make the meaning clear, no comma is required either.

CB
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AnonymousI thought the participial construction should be with a comma
This normally applies only when the participial construction is at the beginning:

Playing catch, the dog ...

CJ
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Comments  
I would approach this type of sentences this way.

The main sentence body + modified by and adverbial structure.



John fished patiently on his boat + while enjoying the view with a cold beer on a hot summer day.



The underlined is an adverbial clause with participle construction which is further supported by a preposition phrase to add the extra information to the main sentence.

Also, "John fished patietnly on his boat while enjoying the view ....." If the adverbial clasue is placed after the main sentencem there is no need for comma here. However, if the adverbial clause is placed before the main sentence, a comma is required. i.e.

While enjyong the view with a cold beer, John fished patiently on his boat.
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