For a participle, think adjective, think -ing (present participle) or -ed or -en or -n (past participle).
For a gerund, think noun; think -ing.
a thundering voice. (adjective, present participle)
a closed door (adjective, past participle)
a hidden motive (adjective, past participle)
I think we all can see there are three participles used as before-noun adjectives. When we use participle before nouns like them, the can we safely assume teh participles used can be (should be??) adjectives in a predicate position (most likely after a "be" verb??)?
appear thundering ...
Can we use normal participle with the pattern of "has/had been + participle" as "before-noun" adjectives like above?
Anonymouscan we safely assume [the] participles used can be ... adjectives in a predicate positionNo. You can't safely assume much of anything where English grammar is concerned!
appear thundering doesn't work, for example.
Most of them do work as you say, however.
is closed and is hidden are both possible as a linking verb with a participle as an adjective. But then, they are also possible as verb phrases as well.
The tense of the linking verb makes no difference, so has/had been closed/hidden follows the same principles.
People are waiting to help.
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